Dictionary of Early New Zealand
Map-Makers (Part A - Entries A to F)
© Brian Hooker 2006. The text that follows is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, criticism or review, no part may be reproduced without prior permission.
The dictionary is in three parts - Part A contains preliminaries and entries A to F; Part B contains entries G to R; Part C contains entries S to Z and the bibliography relating to Dictionary of Early New Zealand Map-Makers. To go
to any part first click on Contents below or above and in that page under Contents scroll down to Section A and Dictionary of Early New Zealand Map-Makers and click on the title required.
More extensive biographical notes on many of the Map-Makers listed can be found on web sites; however this is the only site that relates the names to their New Zealand connection.
Alphabetical list of entries
The aim of this work is to provide brief biographical notes and map making data on early cartographers, surveyors and publishers who produced maps of New Zealand or world and Pacific maps that portray New Zealand or a part of New Zealand. Early New Zealand map-makers are defined as as those who worked before 1850 but no rigid cut-off
date is adhered to. Although the list focuses on the period 1642 to 1850, a number of important map-makers who worked around 1860 are included. Some details of the more important engravers who prepared plates are also given.
Titles, ranks, honours, and academic degrees have been omitted from entries but these can usually be found in biographical dictionaries.
I freely acknowledge my indebtedness to numerous writers on early map-makers, the study of whose books and articles has provided me with considerable and lasting pleasure. The works of many of these scholars are listed in the general bibliography to be found in Part 5.
B. H. 1 August 2001 - revised November 2006
Pre-cook related entries
Entries prefixed by an asterisk - relate to cartographers or publishers who worked on maps after Tasman's voyage or 1642-43, but previous to James Cook's circumnavigation of New Zealand in the Endeavour in 1769-70.
Key to library symbols:
ANMA Archives Nationales, Marine, Paris // AP Auckland Public Library // AR Auckland Institute and Museum Library // BL The British Library, London // BNP Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris // Dix Dixson Library, State Library of New South Wales, Sydney // DUHO Hocken Library, University of Otago, Dunedin //
HO Hydrographic Office,
Taunton, Somerset // HU Waikato University, Hamilton // LaTR La Trobe Library, State Library of Victoria, Melbourne // ML Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales Sydney // NAMU Hawkes Bay Art Gallery and Museum, Napier // NLA National Library of New Zealand, Turnbull Library, Wellington.
BA British Admiralty // BPP British Parliamentary Papers // c. circa // d. died // et al. et alia (and other people) // fl. floruit (flourished) // JRGS Journal of the Royal Geographical Society // Kew Public Record Office, Kew, London // lith. lithograph //
q.v. quode vide (see) RGS Royal Geographical Society, London // SAJ Tasman's
State Archives Journal // Taunton Hydrographic Office, Taunton, Somerset.
BH1 - Brian Hooker, "Early New Zealand Printed Maps" – To access this work - click on Contents above and then scroll down to the title on Section A.
BHX This indicates that a manuscript chart, plan or view is illustrated with notes in, Brian Hooker, "Explorer's charts and views of New Zealand 1642-1840." To access this work - click on Contents above or below and then scroll down to the title in Section A.
The dictionary starts immediately below
*Allard, Carel (1648-1709), the son of Hugo Allard (q.v.), continued in the publishing business after his father’s death. Carel Allard published at least two world maps and both include part of New Zealand’s western littoral (see the illustrations in Shirley, 1984).
Bibliography: Shirley, 1984; Tooley, 1979.
*Allard, Hugo (c.1623-91), was an Amsterdam map publisher who specialized in printing maps from old copper plates, usually after the plates had been revised. The following two maps were printed by Allard around 1660 and include part of New Zealand’s western littoral with names: a world map first published by Paul de la Houve
around 1600; a world wall map, probably first published by C. J. Visscher (q.v.); this map portrays part of New Zealand’s west coast located too far west, beside two names, "NOVA ZEELANDIA" and "STATEN LAND" (See the illustrations in Shirley, 1984). After his death, Allard’s business was continued by his son, Carel (q.v.).
Bibliography: Shirley, 1984; Tooley, 1979.
Anglam, William, settled on Stewart Island in 1836 and compiled charts of southern coasts.
Bibliography: Howard, 1947.
Annals of the Diocese of New Zealand - see Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Apres de Mannevillette, Jean Baptiste Nicolas Denis (1707-1780), French hydrographer friendly with Alexander Dalrymple (q.v.). He supplied Dalrymple with a copy of de Surville's (q.v.) plan of Doubtless Bay made in 1769 (see Map Bri 3.1 and Figure 4.1, Chapter 4, BH1).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1979.
Archer, Joshua, a mid-nineteenth century draftsman and engraver who worked in London. He specialized in ecclesiastical maps around 1840. Archer prepared and engraved a map of New Zealand for The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (see Map Sop 1, Chapter 7, BH1).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1979.
Arrowsmith family. The Arrowsmiths were the leading British publishers in the early to the middle part of the nineteenth century. The founder of the firm was Aaron Arrowsmith, born in 1750. (Portrait at left.) Of particular interest from a New Zealand and Pacific perspective is Aaron's chart of the Pacific published in 1798
. As Tooley (1970b) points out this chart in nine large folio
sheets is a landmark in the early cartography of New Zealand, Australia and the Pacific. It shows all the discoveries in the Pacific right up to the year of
publication. The chart depicts the tracks of the following explorers: Byron (1765), Carteret (1767), Wallis 1769), Bougainville (1768), Furneaux (1763), Clerke (1779), Gore (1779), Boussole and Astrolabe (1787), Bligh (1789, 1792), Colnett (1789-94),Vancouver (1790-94), Edwards (1791), Hunter (1791), Manning (1792), Lion and Hindostan
(1793), Walpole (1794), Butler (1794), William Young (1796), Wilson (1797), Barwell (1798). Later editions of the chart appeared in 1808, 1810 and 1832. A reduced version was also published. His two sons Aaron II and Samuel succeeded Aaron Arrowsmith, but it was a nephew, John Arrowsmith who took a particular interest in maps of New
Zealand. He started on his own account in 1823, but later, on the death of Samuel, he joined the family firm. John Arrowsmith first became associated with New Zealand maps in 1837 (see Maps Arr 1 to Arr 4, Chapter 9, BH1). He prepared a large number of maps of New Zealand and parts of New Zealand many of which were hand tinted
lithographs for publication in British Parliamentary Papers (see Chapter 10, BH1). John Arrowsmith retired from active participation in the firm about 1861 but continued to revise some of the maps published earlier. During his career he compiled maps for Hansard and the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society and some other British
publications. He was one of the founders of the Royal Geographical Society. He died in 1873. His name is honoured today in Mount Arrowsmith and the Arrowsmith Range. Julius von Haast (q.v.) recognized the debt owed to Arrowsmith and conferred the names in 1861. Also see the entries in Hargreaves, 1962.
Bibliography: Hargreaves, 1962; Herbert (1983), McGechaen (1973); Tooley (1970b), Tooley 1979; Verner, 1971.
Baillou de, G., published at Florence a small version of Cook's chart of New Zealand, in 1779 (see Map Bai 1, Chapter 2, BH1).
Baker, William Keller. Irish-born Baker arrived in Sydney in 1835 and set up a printing establishment known as the Hibernian Press at 101 King Street. Two New Zealand maps are known (see Map Bak 1 and Map Bak 2, Chapter 13, BH1).
Bibliography: Mackaness, 1952.
Barnett, Thomas, commanded the Lambton during Herd's (q.v.) expedition to New Zealand in 1826. Barnett surveyed or assisted with several surveys in New Zealand waters; particularly important was his survey of Port Nicholson (see Map Bri 14.1 and Figure 4.3, Chapter 4, BH1 also see the illustration of Barnett's manuscript in Maling,
Manuscripts: WTU; HO.
Bibliography: Maling, 1969; J. O'C. Ross, 1969
Barnicoat & Davison. John Arrowsmith prepared the plate for a map made by Barnicoat and Davison published in a British Parliamentary Paper, (see Map Arr 20, Chapter 9, BH1 - also see Entry 12 in Hargreaves, 1962).
Bibliography: Hargreaves, 1962.
Basire, James, London engraver. Basire engraved a map of central Auckland (see Map Bas, Chapter 10, BH1).
Baudrand, Michel Antonio (1633-1700), geographer to the King of France, prepared a fine world map published by G. G. Rossi (q.v.) at Rome in 1658. Part of New Zealand's west coast is shown but it is erroneously noted as discovered in 1644 (see the illustration in Shirley, 1984).
Bibliography: Shirley, 1984; Tooley, 1979.
Bauzá, Don Felipe, was hydrographer during the visit of Malaspina's Spanish expedition to Doubtful Sound in 1791. Bauzá carried out a survey, of the sound in an armed longboat. The resultant plan was published by the British Admiralty as a section of Chart no. 1281 (see Map Bri 27.1, and Figure 4.7, Chapter 4, BH1 - also
illustration of Bauzá's manuscript in BHX as Plate 24).
Bibliography: Maling, 1969; J. O. C. Ross, 1969.
Bean, Peter, assisted Fisher (q.v.), and Bowen (q.v.) during the first Royal Navy survey of Waitemata Harbour in 1840 (see Map Bri 12.1, Chapter 4, BH1 - also see an illustration of the manuscript by Bean and others, in BHX as Plate 58).
Bibliography: J. O' C. Ross, 1969.
Beaufort, Francis (1774-1857), British Hydrographer 1829-1855. During his term from 1829 to 1855, a considerable amount of survey work was carried out in New Zealand waters and a number of charts were published (see
Chapter 4, BH1). Beaufort also prepared a map of New Zealand for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (see
Map Sok 1.1, Chapter 12, BH1)
Bibliography: Day, 1967; Friendly, 1977; Ritchie, 1968; J. O'C. Ross, 1969.
Beautemps-Beaupré, Charles François (1766-1854), hydrographer accompanying D'Entrecasteaux's (q.v.) expedition to the Pacific in the 1790s. Beautemps-Beaupré, prepared a chart of the northern coast of New Zealand and several charts of the Kermadec Islands (see Maps Dep 2a.1, Dep 3.1 and Figure 5.2, Chapter 5, BH1 - also
see BHX, Plates
25 and 26 - illustrations of manuscripts). Beautemps-Beaupré later became one of France's most celebrated hydrographers.
Bibliography: Dunmore 1965 & 1969; Brian Hooker, 1988b.
*Bellin, Jacques Nicolas (1703-72), the elder, worked for many years as hydrographer at the French Marine Office, at Paris. He prepared a very large number of sea-charts and several important atlases. As well, he compiled the maps for Prevost’s, Historie générale des voyages (Paris, 1747-61). Included in this work are two maps which
portray part of New Zealand’s western littoral beside the name "NOUVELLE ZELANDE." (See the illustration of "CARTE RÉDUITE DES TERRES AUSTRALES Pour servir a l’Histoire des Voyages … 1753", in Plate IX, Tooley, 1970b.)
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b; Tooley, 1979.
Bérard, Auguste (1796-1852), first visited New Zealand with Duperrey's (q.v.) expedition in 1824. In 1843, he was placed in command of the French naval station, Le Rhin, at Banks Peninsula. The station was closed in 1846 following a fine survey of the area carried out by Bérard, and his assistants (see Map Dep 31, Chapter 5, and Figure
5.9, BH1 - also see Map Arr 31, Chapter 9, BH1).
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965 & 1969; Brian Hooker 1988b.
Betts, John (fl. 1844-63), published a map of New Zealand around 1840 in his sixpenny map series (see Map Bet 1.1, Chapter 14, BH1).
Black, J., published Nicholas' book, Voyage to New Zealand, 1817. Included are several maps based mainly on Cook's (q.v.) charts (see Map Blb 1 and Map Blb 2, Chapter 2, BH1 - also see Plate X, Tooley, 1970b).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b.
Black, Adam & Charles, Edinburgh. Adam Black (1784-1874) founded the firm in 1807. They published a map of New Zealand in 1843 (see Map Bla 1.1, Chapter 14, BH1).
Black & Armstrong, published John Arrowsmith's (q.v.) maps of New Zealand and parts of New Zealand in Wakefield's book, A statement of the objects of the New Zealand Association, … London, 1837 (see Map Arr 1, Map Arr 2, and Map Arr 3, Chapter 9, BH1).
*Blaeu, Joan (1598-1673), was born at Amsterdam, the son of W. J. Blaeu, founder of one of the most celebrated map-publishing firms of the seventeenth century. Joan
Blaeu held the position of official cartographer to the Dutch East India Company at the time of Tasman’s discovery of part of New Zealand’s west coast, in 1642-43. Access to
the company’s confidential records enabled Blaeu to update his maps and globes with Tasman’s data at an early date. Blaeu published the following maps which delineate part of New Zealand’s western littoral, with names: world wall map, first published in 1619 (by W. J. Blaeu), usually believed to have been printed from revised copper
plates in 1645-46. The name "ZEELANDIA NOVA" is inscribed near the coastline (see the detail in figure 1.2, Chapter1, BH1); world wall map, published in 1648 and dedicated to the Spanish Ambassador at the Peace Conference of Westphalia, Casparo de Bracamonte; the name "ZEELANDIA NOVA" is inscribed beside the western littoral (see the detail
in figure 1.4, Chapter 1, BH1); a large map of southeast Asia issued in 1659; the name "ZEELANDIA NOVA" is inscribed beside the western littoral; a folio-sized world map published in 1660 and usually found in Blaeu’s Atlas maior (Amsterdam, 1661); the name "ZEELANDIA NOVA" is inscribed beside the western littoral (figure 1.5, - detail -
Chapter 1, BH1). The last-mentioned map shows a gap in the New Zealand coastline in the Cook Strait area. Blaeu’s maps served as models in the south-western Pacific region, in particular, for a large number of maps published up until 1773 when Cook’s (q.v.) data became available. Probably Joan Blaeu devised the name "Zeelandia Nova" in
consultation with an official or officials of the Dutch East India Company. No doubt part of the motive in selecting the name was to compliment the province of Zeeland, which was the second most important chamber of the Company.
Bibliography: Brian Hooker, 1972, Koeman (nd); Tooley, 1979.
Bligh, William (1754 - 1817), British sailor, sailed with Cook (q.v.) on his second Pacific voyage. In command of HMS Bounty he sailed south of New Zealand on his way to Tahiti to collect a cargo of Breadfruit plants. On 19 September 1788 Bligh discovered the uninhabited Bounty Islands which are today part of New Zealand. (See
the article on Bligh and the Bounty - go via Conten to Section D.)
Blois, de, Théodore Julien de la Calande, accompanied Duperrey's (q.v.) expedition to New Zealand in 1824. As one of the hydrographers de Blois assisted with surveys at the Bay of Islands (see Map Dep 4.1, Map Dep 5.1b, Map Blo 1, Map Dep 6b.1, Chapter 5, BH1 - also see an illustration of the manuscript credited partly to de Blois in
BHX as Plate 42)
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965 & 1969, Brian Hooker, 1988b; Sharp, 1971.
Blosseville de, Jules Alphonse, René, Poret (1802 - 1833), accompanied Duperrey's (q.v.) expedition to New Zealand in 1824. As one of the hydrographers de Blosseville assisted with surveys at the Bay of Islands. In Mémoire géographique sur la Nouvelle Zélande (Paris, 1826), de Blosseville published information he collected from whaling
captains and visitors to New Zealand (see Map Dep 4.1, Map Dep 5.1b, Map Blo 1, Map Dep 6b.1, Chapter 5, BH1 - also see an illustration of the manuscript as Plate 42 in BHX partly credited to de Blosseville.)
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965 & 1969; Brian Hooker, 1988b, Sharp, 1971.
Bonne & Desmaret, published Cook's (q.v.) New Zealand chart with four inset plans in c. 1788 (see Map Bon 1, Chapter 2, BH1 - also see Plate XI, Tooley, 1970b).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b.
*Bowen, Emanuel (c. 1720-67), was a noted English cartographer, engraver and print seller who worked at London from about 1714 to 1767. Bowen prepared an important map of the southwest Pacific for binding in with, John Harris, Navigantium atque itinerantium bibliotheca or a complete collection of voyages and travels (London, 1744).
However, Bowen’s map that includes part of New Zealand’s western littoral, and the name "ZEELANDIA NOVA" is a copy of Thévenot’s (q.v.) map, first issued in 1663. (See Plate XII, Tooley, 1970b.) Nevertheless, this map provided considerable stimulus to English participation in Pacific exploration during the second half of the eighteenth
century. Harris’ work was first published in 1705; John Campbell revised it in 1744. Thévenot’s error of the extra "Komingen", at Three Kings Islands, is repeated in Bowen’s map.
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b; Tooley, 1979.
*Bowen, Thomas (fl. 1749-90), a London map engraver, was the son of Emanuel Bowen (q.v.). A number of Bowen’s maps portray part of New Zealand’s western littoral but his work, in general, is not of a high standard and is of limited interest from a New Zealand perspective.
Bibliography: Tooley, 1979.
Bowen, Thomas, (19th century Royal Navy surveyor), assisted Fisher (q.v.) and Bean (q.v.) in the first of two 1840 surveys of the Waitemata Harbour. He also carried out a fine survey of the entrance to Tairua Harbour and the adjacent area.
*Bowles, John (1701-79), was a London publisher of atlases and geographical works. In 1754, Bowles published a map of America with a number of inset views and maps. Part of New Zealand’s western littoral is included beside the name "New Zeland."
Bibliography: Tooley, 1979.
Boyer, Joseph Emmanuel, a junior officer, accompanied Dumont d'Urville (q.v.) on his 1840 expedition to New Zealand. While the expedition was anchored at Akaroa, Boyer travelled to Peraki where he assisted a whaling vessel and surveyed Peraki Harbour. He also assisted with other surveys during the voyage (see Map Dep 28.1, Chapter 5,
Bristow, Abraham, commanded the ship Ocean during the discovery of the Auckland Islands in 1806 (see Map Bri 29.1, Chapter 4, BH1). The Auckland Islands are now part of New Zealand territory.
British hydrographic charts:
Early chart catalogues: The first Admiralty chart catalogue was published in 1821 and the first New Zealand section was included in the 1839 issue. (See the illustration of the catalogue - click on the thumbnail - to follow.) From twelve charts in the 1839 catalogue, the New Zealand section expanded to twenty-two charts in the 1846 catalogue.
Hydrographer of the Navy: The office of Hydrographer to the Admiralty was established in 1795 when Alexander Dalrymple became the first appointee to hold the post. The title later changed to Hydrographer of the Navy. Hydrographers and their term in office, to 1855, were: Alexander Dalrymple (q.v.), 1795-1808, Thomas Hurd (q.v.)
1808-1823, W. Edward Parry 1823-1829, Francis Beaufort (q.v.) 1829-1855.
Chart numbers: Chart numbers were first allocated in the 1839 catalogue, and except for the general chart, the New Zealand charts are numbered from 1089 as they are printed in the catalogue. As new charts were added to later catalogues, chart numbers were allocated without particular relationship to earlier New Zealand numbers. The
numbering system is confusing; sometimes in a new printing, the same chart received a new number without any other changes. At other times, the same chart number extended through different editions of a chart covering the same area.
Chart sizes: Chart sizes are indicated in Admiralty chart catalogues according to paper size. A full-size Admiralty chart was printed on double-elephant paper (DE), giving a printed area of approximately 640 x 960 mm. The full sheets would be subdivided into half-sheets (termed DE/2), thirds (DE/3), quarters (DE/4), and eighths (DE/8).
Scale: Scales are given in the 1839 catalogue by the length in inches of geographical mile (m) or a degree (d) of latitude.
Price: The price of charts changed from time to time; prices did not always increase but were sometimes reduced. Since publication dates were often left unaltered when other data were changed, a study of price changes (in conjunction with listings in chart catalogues) can help to pinpoint the true publication date of a particular chart.
Admiralty agents: Between 1821 and 1829, a number of chart sellers shared the agency for the sale of the Admiralty charts. On 25 September 1829, R. B. Bate was appointed sole agent. On the death of Bate in December 1847, Mrs Bate continued the agency in her husband’s name. J. D. Potter, who had been Bates’ foreman, was appointed Chart
Agent, on 20 April 1850. Thus, some of the charts listed in Chapter 5, BH1, first issued with Bates’ imprint, were later revised to replace Bates’ name with Potter’s imprint.
Magnetic variation: Sometimes the variation provides a guide to the date a chart was actually printed. In a few charts the date is inserted under or near the variation figure.
Views: Coastal views became a regular feature in British Admiralty charts from an early date. Several of the charts listed in Chapter 4, BH1, include views or coastal profiles. Illustrations of several Hydrographic Office charts are included in Chapter 4, BH1.
Bibliography: David & Campbell, 1984; Day, 1967.
Broughton, William Robert (b. 1762), commanded HMS Chatham during Vancouver's expedition to New Zealand in 1791. Broughton carried out several surveys in New Zealand waters and in the Chatham Islands (see Map Rob 1c, Map Rob 1d, Map Rob 1e, Map Dep 1c.1, Map Dep 1d, Map Dep 1e.1, Chapter 3, BH1).
Bibliography: W. K. Lamb, 1984.
Brunner, Thomas (1821-74), surveyor and explorer was appointed at the age of twenty an "improver" on the survey
staff of the New Zealand Company (q.v.). He arrived at Nelson on the Whitby. In the late winter of 1843 Brunner explored the head of the Motueka River. In February 1846 with Heaphy (q.v.) and Fox (q.v.) and a Maori guide Kehu,
the search was resumed for accessible Nelson grazing land. They returned on 1 March. Three weeks later Brunner, Heaphy and Kehu crossed the isthmus from Golden Bay to the West Wanganui. They reached the Mawhera (Grey) on 21 May, the Taramakau on 26 May, and the Arahura on 27 May. Brunner set out on other expeditions the same year and
the next year. In 1851 he was appointed chief surveyor of the province of Nelson and later Commissioner of Public Works until his retirement in 1869. Brunner prepared a map of "The Middle Island" for the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society. The plate was made by John Arrowsmith (q.v.) - (see Map Arr 8, Chapter 9, BH1).
Bibliography: Bagnall, 1966.
*Buache, Phillippe (1700-73), a French geographer, was a relative and successor to Guillaume de L’Isle (q.v.). In an inset polar map, in his Pacific map of 1754, Buache demonstrated his ability to combine geographical facts with fantasies. He joined part of New Zealand’s western littoral to Antarctica. In this map the name "NOUVELE
ZELANDE" is inscribed (see Plate XIV, Tooley, 1970b).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b; Tooley, 1979.
Bunker, Eber (1761-1836), first visited New Zealand when he called at Doubtless Bay in the whaling ship William and Ann in 1792. Later he commanded the whaler Albion. After many years sealing and whaling in the Southwest Pacific,
Bunker settled in Australia where he became known as the "Father of Australian Whaling". Bunker produced a
fine chart of parts of southern New Zealand in 1817. (See the illustration of Bunkers' manuscript chart in BHX - Plate 30.)
Bibliography: Maling, 1969; J. O'C. Ross, 1969.
Butler, Samuel, produced a map of New Zealand in 1843 (see Map Mun 1, Chapter 14, BH1).
Carrington Freder Alonzoic (1808-88) and Augustus Octavius Croker Carrington, (1816 -1901). In June 1840 the directors of the Plymouth Company appointed F. A. Carrington chief surveyor and sent him to New Zealand with instructions to select a suitable site for the proposed settlement. He visited several possible sites before selecting
New Plymouth. Because of his long association with the province, and, particularly because he selected and laid out New Plymouth, F. A. Carrington became known as the "The Father of Taranaki." Octavius Carrington acted as principal assistant to his brother. F. A. Carrington provided data for a map published in a British Parliamentary
Paper and prepared by John Arrowsmith (see Map Arr 23, Chapter 9, BH1 - also see entries 14, 15 and 44 Hargreaves, 1962)
Bibliography: Foster, 1966a; Hargreaves, 1962.
*Cassini, Giovanni Maria, was an Italian map publisher active around 1790. Cassini’s map of New Zealand was published in 1798 (see Map Cas 1 and Figure 2.8, Chapter 2, BH1). The copper plate used in printing this map is preserved in the Istituto Nazionale per la Grafica, Via Della Stamperia, 6, Rome.
Bibliography: Tooley, 1979.
Cécille, Jean-Baptiste Thomas, commanded the French corvette Hêroïne during a visit to New Zealand and the Chatham Islands in 1838. The Hêroïne had sailed from Brest on 1 July 1837. The main object of the enterprise under Cécille, who was a very experienced navigator and senior naval officer, was to show the French flag and to offer
protection to French whaling vessels in the Pacific. Cécille was instructed to approach New Zealand by way of Hobart and Port Jackson. Accompanying Cécille, were two talented hydrographers, J. M. Fournierand (q.v.) his assistant L. A. Durand-Dubraye (q.v.). The Hêroïne anchored in the Bay of Islands on 20 May 1838, continued sailing
south to Akaroa and returned to Northland in August 1838. While at the Bay of Islands, Cécille, received news of the massacre of the crew of the Jean Bart at the Chatham Islands. The Hêroïne left the bay on 6 October, and arrived at the Chathams on 17 October. After the Frenchmen carried out violent retribution they took the opportunity
to examine the area. Fournier, assisted by Durand-Dubraye, carried out surveys at the Bay of Islands, Lyttelton Harbour, Port Levy and the Chatham Islands. (See Maps Dep 22, Dep 23, Dep 24, Dep 25a, Dep 25b, Chapter 5, BH1).
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965 & 1969; Brian Hooker, 1988b.
Chaffers, Edward Main. In September 1839, Chaffers in command of the Tory, arrived in Port Nicholson with an advance party of immigrants for the second New Zealand Company. During his stay in New Zealand, Chaffers surveyed Port Nicholson, Tory Channel, and Kaipara Harbour where the Tory ran aground (see Map Wyl 5.1, Chapter 8, BH1 -
also see Map Blu 2, Chapter 13, BH1 - also see BHX - Plate 72).
Bibliography: J. O'C. Ross, 1969.
Chapman & Hall, London, published maps for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (q.v.) including a map of New Zealand (see Map Sok 1.1, Chapter 12, BH1).
Church Missionary Record - see Seeley, L.B.
Clint, Raphael (1797-1849), established a printing and engraving business in Sydney in 1835. Clint modelled his New Zealand maps on published works but he failed to acknowledge the sources. Clumsily drawn, Clint's maps never the less contain useful information (see Maps Cli 1 to Cli 10, Chapter 13, BH1 - also see Plate CVI, Tooley,
Bibliography: Mackaness, 1952; Australian DB, pp. 230-31; Tooley, 1970b.
*Colom, Jacob Aertsz (1599-1673), was born at Dordrecht, in the Netherlands, and settled, in 1622, in Amsterdam where he became well known as a printer, cartographer and bookseller. Colom’s,
Atlas maritimo o mundo aquatica (Amsterdam, 1669) includes a Pacific chart issued in 1657. This chart belongs to a group of world and Pacific
charts that portray part of New Zealand’s western littoral too far west, and beside the name "Staten Lant" (or "Staten Landt"). Charts that derive, in the New Zealand area, from Dutch East India Company data through Joan Blaeu (q.v.), the official Company cartographer, include the name "Zeelandia Nova" beside the coastline, closer to
the true position. Colom’s chart of the Pacific displays data (including the name "Staten Lant") almost certainly copied from publishers who surreptitiously obtained information before official data was released. (See also my article titled "The earliest cartographic representation and name for New Zealand in a printed map," - Go to
Section K in the Contents Page.)
Bibliography: Brian Hooker, 1990; Tooley, 1979b.
Commissioners of Longitude, published Cook's chart of New Zealand, in 1788. (see Map Com 1 and Figure 2.6, Chapter 2, BH1).
* Cook, James (1728-79), the son of a farm worker, was born at Marton in Yorkshire. He served his apprenticeship as a seaman in Yorkshire coal-ships and after further sea-going experience in merchant ships, he enrolled in the Royal Navy
as an able seaman, in 1755. After an impressive career in the navy, Cook was selected in 1768, to
lead, with the rank of lieutenant, an expedition in the Endeavour to the South Pacific. Sponsors of the voyage were the Royal Society and the Admiralty. After successfully observing the transit of Venus at Tahiti, in April 1769, Cook continued southward in accordance with his previously-secret orders, which were to reach 40° S, and then
proceed westward between 35° S and 40° S, until he fell in with a supposed southern continent or the east coast of New Zealand. Cook found nothing until 7 October 1769 (nautical time), when he sighted the North Island; two days later he anchored the Endeavour in Poverty Bay. On 11 October, Cook headed south, searching for the eastern
entrance of Cook Strait; the Endeavour had on board Tasman’s reports which indicated the possibility of a passage. But failing to find a break in the land he turned back and circumnavigated the North Island, coasting and making a running survey as he went. Continuous gales delayed him as he rounded the northern tip of the island.
Unknown to him Jean de Surville (q.v.) was rounding the northern tip from west to east at the same time. Reaching Queen Charlotte Sound in the middle of January 1770, Cook climbed a neighbouring hill and saw before him the strait now named after him. Sailing through at the beginning of February he completed the circuit of the North
Island in four months. Turning southwards, Cook started work on the South Island and six weeks later, despite as bad weather off the southern extreme as he met at the northern, he was back in Queen Charlotte Sound. He left the vicinity of New Zealand on 1 April 1770. Promoted to captain for his second voyage in 1772-75, and placed in
command of HMS Resolution and HMS Adventure (Tobias Furneaux), Cook approached New Zealand from the west to enter Dusky Sound on 26 March 1773. During this second Pacific voyage, Cook made three separate visits to New Zealand. On his third Pacific voyage, in command of an expedition consisting of HMS Resolution and HMS
again approached New Zealand from the west and reached Queen Charlotte Sound on 12 February 1777. Later in the voyage, the inhabitants of Kealakekua, Hawaii, killed Cook. (Cooks charts are listed and some are illustrated in Chapter 2, BH1 - also see several plates by Cook or his associates in BHX - in particular Plates 5 to 18).
Manuscripts: BL, HO.
Bibliography: Beaglehole, 1968; Beaglehole, 1969; Beaglehole 1974; Brian Hooker, 2001.
*Coronelli, Vincenzo Maria (1650-1718), was a notable theologian, mathematician and cartographer. At Venice, he became General of the Order of the Fransicans. Many of his
maps and globes became celebrated. He produced a large two-volume Atlas: Atlante Veneto (Venice, 1691-1696), which includes (p. 150), part of New Zealand’s western
littoral as a text illustration (see Figure 1.16, Chapter 1, BH1). The same map appeared in Coronelli’s Epitome cosmographica, in 1693. A western hemisphere map that includes New Zealand’s western littoral is also well known. In this map, Coronelli followed the Sanson (q.v.) pattern and provides New Zealand with a tentative east coast.
A map of Asia that includes part of New Zealand was published in 1696 (see Plate XXII, Tooley, 1970b).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b; Tooley, 1979.
Courier Office, Hobart. Little is known about the "Courier Office" but one printed New Zealand map is known (see Map Cou 1, Chapter 13, BH1).
Craigie, David, master of HMS Pelorus (Philip Chetwode), produced the first plan of the Pelorus Sound area, in 1837. John Guard, the whaler, acted as pilot when Chetwode took the Pelorus forty miles up the sound. When the water shoaled, they explored in the ship's boat, up the Pelorus River. Craigie prepared a chart of the area (see the
illustration of Craigie's manuscript in Maling, 1969).
Bibliography: Maling, 1969.
Crozet, Julien, was second-in-command of Marion Dufresne's French expedition consisting of the flyboats Mascarin and Marquis de Castries when they visited New Zealand in 1772. After Marion was killed Crozet took charge of the expedition. Crozet participated in several surveys in New Zealand waters (see Map Duf 1a, Map Duf 1c, Chapter 5,
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965 & 1969; Brian Hooker, 1988b; Kelly, 1951.
Cudlip, F. A., master of HMS Buffalo. (Sadler (q.v.). with Woore (q.v.), Cudlip surveyed Whangaroa Harbour in 1836 (see Map Bri 5.1, Chapter 4, BH1).
Bibliography: J. O'C. Ross, 1969.
*Dalrymple, Alexander (1737-1808), was appointed Hydrographer to the East India Company in 1779 and then in 1795 the British Admiralty appointed him the first Hydrographer to the Navy. Bound in with Dalrymple’s book,
An account of the discoveries made in the South Pacifick Ocean, previous to 1764 (London, 1767), is a chart titled "CHART
of the SOUTH PACIFICK OCEAN Pointing out the Discoveries made therein Previous to 1764" (see Figure 1.11, Chapter 1, BH1). In this chart, New Zealand’s western littoral is portrayed too far west and beside the legend "STAATS LAND or NEW ZELAND". (See the explanation under J. A. Colom). The New Zealand area in Dalrymple’s chart almost
certainly derives from data in the same area in Valentijn’s charts. (See Figures 1.7, and 1.8, Chapter 1, BH1). James Cook carried Dalrymple’s book and chart on the Endeavour, in 1768-71. Another link between Dalrymple and New Zealand was through his publication of de Surville’s (q.v.) plan of Doubtless Bay, in 1781. (See Map Bri 3.1
and Figure 4.1, Chapter 4, BH1). Dalrymple received de Surville’s manuscript work through his friend the noted French cartographer, Jean Baptiste d’Apres de Mannevillette (q.v.) (See also my article on Dalrymple on this web sited. Go via contents to Section i.)
Bibliography: Day, 1967; Fry, 1970; Ritchie, 1968.
*Danckert, Cornelis, II (1603-56), founded a cartographic tradition in Amsterdam in about 1633, that was continue by members of the family through to the eighteenth century. The Danckerts were particularly known for their wall maps and views. A number of maps published by Danckert or his family, include part of New Zealand’s western
littoral. One very fine world wall map, which includes New Zealand, is Justus Danckert’s map published c. 1680 (see the illustration in, Shirley, 1984).
Bibliography: Shirley, 1984; Tooley, 1979.
D'Après de Mannevillette, J. B. N. D. See Après de Mannevillette.
Davison - see Barnicoat & Davison.
Day, John, commanded the brig Wellington during a sealing voyage in New Zealand waters in the early 1820s. It is possible that Day was the first European navigator to enter Port Nicholson.
Bibliography: Brian Hooker, 1993.
Day & Sons, lithographers, London, printed several New Zealand maps (see Maps Day 1 to Day 8 Chapter 10, BH1).
De Blois see Blois de.
De Blosseville see Blosseville de
D'Entrecasteaux, Antoine-Raymond-Joseph de Bruni Chevalier (1737-1793), French naval captain, promoted to the rank of Rear-Admiral in May 1791. D'Entrecasteaux one of the most experienced captains in far-eastern navigation, was appointed by the French authorities to lead a search for
J. F. de Galaup la Perouse who disappeared after
leaving Botany Bay, New South Wales, in March 1788. D'Entrecasteaux sailed from Brest, in September 1791, but it was another seventeen months before the expedition reached the vicinity of New Zealand. The Recherche and the Espérance, the two frigates under d'Entrecasteaux's command passed close to the northern coast of Aupouri
Peninsula, Northland, on 11 March 1793. D'Entrecasteaux's instructions included checking the longitude of Cape Maria van Dieman and making comparisons with Cook's calculations, but there was no direction to land. The expedition spent less than two days off the northern coast. Maori in canoe traded with the explorers; When
d'Entrecasteaux left the vicinity of New Zealand he headed for Tonga. On 15 March, he discovered L'Esperance Rock the southernmost feature of the Kermadec Islands. The next day having seen Curtis Island and Macauley, he made a fresh discovery and named the island Raoul Island to honour Raoul, the navigator on the Recherche. The group
was named Kermadec Islands after Huon de Kermadec, commander of the Espérance. D'Entrecasteaux's hydrographer Charles-Francois Beautemps-Beaupré (q.v.) produced a chart of the northern coast of New Zealand (see Map Dep 2a.1 and Figure 5.2, Chapter 5, BH1). D'Entrecasteaux died at sea off Java during the return voyage back to France.
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965 & 1969; Brian Hooker, 1988b; Wright, 1950.
De Fer, Nicholas - see Fer, Nicholas de
De Jouvency, M. see Jouvency, de, M
*De L’Isle, Guillaume (1675-1726), was the leading French cartographer of the early eighteenth century. He was influenced greatly by the teaching of his father Claude De l’Isle, also a celebrated geographer, and another French family of cartographers, the Cassinis. The first edition of De l’Isle’s Atlas nouveau was published (undated
but probably in 1700), at Amsterdam by Covens & Mortier. Later editions followed until about 1745. In this atlas a fine double-hemisphere map portrays part of New Zealand’s western littoral (see the illustration in Shirley, 1984). De l’Isle also produced a globe that includes part of New Zealand (see the detail in Figure 1.15, Chapter
1, BH1 - also see Plates CX and CXI, Tooley, 1970b - also see the illustration of the southern hemisphere map in Maling, 1969). Tooley comments: "Tutored by Cassini, De L'Isle worked with the Academies des Sciences, reformed French cartography, and became the foremost geographer of his age. His maps were reprinted, copied, and imitated
for well over a century and he ranks with Ptolemy and Mercator as one of the major contributors to the science of cartography."
Bibliography: Maling, 1969; Shirley, 1984; Tooley, 1970b; Tooley, 1979.
Dépôt-général de la Marine, Paris. The Dépôt-général de la Marine, as the French state hydrographic service, was founded in 1720, seventy-five years before the British Admiralty appointed Dalrymple (q.v.) to the post of first Hydrographer to the Admiralty. The Dépôt-général de la Marine published a very fine series of single-sheet
charts of parts of New Zealand which are listed in Chapter 5, BH1. (Some are illustrated - also see the illustrations in Hargreaves, 1966.) Around the middle of the nineteenth century, French engraving reached a stage of perfection which has never been surpassed; thus, the New Zealand charts were superbly printed from copper plates
prepared by skilled engravers and script specialists. Many of the charts had been published previously in atlases which accompanied the official French accounts of Pacific voyages. The reprinted charts are the same as the atlas-charts except for the addition of the chart number, the seal, and in many cases the price. Following the
publication of Bérard’s chart of Banks Peninsula (no. 1164), in 1848, the Dépôt-général de la Marine modelled fresh charts on British Admiralty charts; in particular charts which resulted from the surveys of Stokes (q.v.), and Drury (q.v.). Twenty of the copper plates used in printing both atlas plates and Dépôt-général de la Marine
charts are extant and are preserved in the Musée de la Marine, Palais de Chaillot, Paris (see the entry Musée de la Marine). A few charts published by the Dépôt-général de la Marine, were not issued in atlases. These include the charts published following the visit of Cécille in the Héroïne, 1838, and Bérard’s chart of 1848 (no. 1164).
Some exceptions to the above explanations apply to the Vancouver charts, which were originally published with English titles and legends, by Robinson & Edwards (q.v.). The Dépôt-général de la Marine issued catalogues regularly from an early date. An illustration showing part of the New Zealand section of the catalogue is reproduced
here. (Click on the thumbnail - to follow.)
Bibliography: Hargreaves, 1966; Brian Hooker, 1988b.
*De Rossi, Giovanni – see Rossi, Giovanni, de
De Surville, Jean François Marie - see Surville J. F. M.
*De Wit, Frederick – see Wit, Frederick de
Dieffenbach, Ernst (1811-55), naturalist, writer and professor of geology arrived on the Tory as surgeon and naturalist for the New Zealand Company (q.v.). In the course of surveying the country for the New Zealand Company Dieffenbach made extensive journeys into the interior of the North Island and he made the first successful climb
of Mount Taranaki. With Charles Heaphy (q.v.) Dieffenbach prepared a map of the Chatham Islands. The plate was made for the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society by John Arrowsmith (q.v.) - (see Map Arr 7, Chapter 9, BH1).
Bibliography: Waterhouse., 1966a.
*Doncker, H., (1626-99) an Amsterdam chart publisher and instrument maker was particularly noted for his sea atlases. He published the first edition of his Zee-alas oftet water-waereld, in 1659, and another edition appeared in 1665. A version, with the title-page in English, and the text in Dutch, appeared in 1660. Map No. 1, in this
atlas is a world map by Frederik de Wit (q.v.). A fine Pacific chart that first appeared in the atlas of 1660, portrays New Zealand’s western littoral beside the name "ZEELANDA / NOVA" and place-names, in an inset chart. Doncker’s chart is the earliest printed work to include a section assigned to a part of New Zealand.
Bibliography: Koeman, 1967-71; Tooley, 1979.
Dower, John (fl. 1825-70) a London publisher, draftsman and engraver compiled, with Edward Weller (q.v.), the Weekly Dispatch Atlas comprising lithographed maps, in 1858 and 1863. In or around 1845 he compiled, A new general atlas of modern geography. For details of the New Zealand map bound in with the atlas see Orr & Co. Tooley,
1970b, lists a map of New Zealand published in 1865 (see Plate XXX, Tooley, 1970b).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b.
Downie, James, a Royal Navy captain, commanded HMSS Coromandel during a timber-gathering expedition to New Zealand, in 1820. In particular Downie searched for kauri logs on the banks of the Hauraki Gulf. Parts of a plan of Hauraki Gulf, prepared by Downie, served as the model when the British Hydrographer engraved a copper plate in
1836. Charts printed were titled "Shouraka Gulf" (later numbered 1093 ) - (see Map Bri 11.1, Chapter 4, BH1 - also see the illustration of Downie's manuscript in Maling, 1969).
Manuscripts: HO; ML.
Bibliography: Brian Hooker, 1986b & 1988a; Maling, 1969; J. O’C. Ross, 1969.
Drury, Byron, Commander Royal Navy, in command of HMS Pandora carried out a number of surveys in association with J. L. Stokes (q.v.) in New Zealand waters, from 1848 to 1855. Drury also surveyed in the area of the Snares.
Bibliography: Day, 1967; Ritchie, 1968; J. O’C Ross, 1969.
Dubraye – see Durand-Dubraye.
Du Clesmeur, Ambroise B. M. Le Ja French naval officer commanded the Marquis de Castries during the visit of Dufresne’s (q.v.) expedition to New Zealand in 1772. A published plan of Spirits Bay is almost certainly derived from a lost sketch prepared by Du Clesmeur (see Map Duf 1b, and Figure 5.1, Chapter 5, BH1 also see the illustration
of Du Clesmeur's manuscript in BHX as Plates 22 and 23).
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965 & 1969; Kelly, 1951; Ollivier, 1983; Ollivier, 1985.
Dufresne, Marion (correctly Nicolas Thomas Marion-Dufresne) - (1724-72), French explorer. In command of an expedition consisting of two vessels, the Mascarin and the Marquis de Castries, Marion Dufresne left from Mauritius early in 1772. With him on the Mascarin was his second-in-command Julien Crozet (q.v.). Chevalier Duclesmeur (q.v.)
commanded the consort. From Tasmania the French ships followed approximately Tasman's course of 1642 and came in sight of Mount Taranaki , on 25 March 1772. Accounts of Tasman's (q.v.) voyage were known to Marion but he knew nothing about visits by Cook (q.v.) and de Surville (q.v.). Marion sailed past the entrance to Kaipara Harbour on
19 March and and on 3 April he sighted Cape Maria van Diemen; then on the same day the expedition sailed into Spirits Bay where Duclesmeur carried out a survey (see Map Duf 1b, and Figure 5.1, Chapter 5, BH1). The explorers then inspected Tom Bowling Bay, rounded North Cape and the two ships anchored in the Bay of Islands on 4 May.
Marion prepared for a lengthy stay. A shore station was established at Waipao on Moturua, the island being named "Marion Island." Crozet prepared a plan of the bay. On 12 July, Marion and a party of his men landed on the mainland at Manawaora Bay intending to fish. They were ambushed by Maori and massacred, except for one man who
escaped to relate the story. Crozet, who was now in command, carried out violent retribution before leaving the Bay of Islands on 14 July. An account of the voyage, and three small charts of parts of New Zealand on one plate, are included in, [Julien Crozet] Nouveaux voyage à la Mer du Sud, commencé sous les ordres de M. Marion,
Chevalier …d’après les plans & journaux de M.Crozet (Paris: Barrois, 1783).
Bibliography: Brian Hooker, 1988b; Kelly, 1951.
Dumont d’Urville, Jules Sebastien César (1790-1842), French explorer and navigator visited New Zealand three times. The most extensive French surveys in New Zealand waters were carried out by Dumont d'Urville who had been Duperrey's (q.v.) second-in-command on the Coquille. The Coquille renamed Astrolabe, in memory of La Pérouse's
(q.v.) lost flagship, sailed from Toulon, in April 1826, with a long voyage in prospect. One of the objects of this voyage was a further attempt to try and solve the mystery of la Pérouse's disappearance. After calling at Port Jackson, d'Urville intended heading for Foveaux Strait but adverse winds prevented this. The Frenchmen sighted
the west coast of the South Island in the vicinity of the Grey River on 10 January 1827. Steering north, and following the land around Cape Farewell and Farewell Spit, d'Urville's first detailed survey was of the western shore of Tasman Bay. On 18 January, d'Urville left the Astrolabe anchored in Tasman Bay, climbed to the top of a hill
and suspected that a deep inlet he could see on the eastern side of Tasman Bay might lead to a passage through to Admiralty Bay. At enormous risk he sailed the Astrolabe through the narrow passage on the third attempt on 28 January, and named the channel "Passe de Francais" (see the illustration on page 106, BH1). His officers insisted
that the island now revealed be named D'Urville Island and the captain agreed to this as a temporary idea until the original name could be ascertained. D'Urville continued through Cook Strait, and headed north, after failing to detect the entrance to Port Nicholson. As he proceeded off the east coast of the North Island, d'Urville and
his surveying officers carried out a number of detailed surveys. His original intention had been to anchor in Whitianga Harbour but because of unfavourable winds and earlier delays he decided to make for the Hauraki Gulf. When the wind changed, he was forced to sail north to anchor in Bream Bay. Finally, on 24 February, the Astrolabe,
approaching the Waitemata Harbour from the north, sailed between Tiritiri Matangi Island and Whangaparaoa Peninsula and the following day passed Rangitoto Island. D'Urville landed and investigated parts of the present-day Auckland area. On 26 February, d'Urville learned from a Maori chief, Rangui, of the existence of Manukau Harbour,
across the isthmus on the west coast. An exploring party was sent under the charge of V. C. Lottin (q.v.), in a whaleboat with an escort of Maori, to verify this important piece of information. After following the course of the Tamaki River upstream for five or six kilometres, they crossed a narrow neck of land and arrived at Manukau
Harbour. Early in the morning of 27 February, the Astrolabe, with a Maori pilot, sailed down Tamaki Strait and entered the gulf between Waiheke and Ponui to continue the voyage. In early March 1827 after leaving the Hauraki Gulf, the Astrolabe sailed north and d'Urville and Lottin charted the east coast of Northland. Following his
arrival at a point north of North Cape, d'Urville slowly brought the Astrolabe back to the Bay of Islands before heading for northern Pacific islands on 18 March and then back to France. Late in 1836, d'Urville judged the time opportune for a further expedition and submitted a modest proposal to the French authorities. King
Louis-Philippe enlarged on the original plan and suggested that new exploration should include the Antarctic. The Astrolabe was again selected by d'Urville and another corvette, the Zélée, was placed under the command of Charles Jacquinot. The two ships sailed from Toulon on 7 September 1837. A noted hydrographer C. A.
Vincendon-Dumoulin (q.v.) accompanied d'Urville on the Astrolabe. It was two-and-a-half years before the expedition anchored at the Auckland Islands, on 7 March 1840. D'Urville stayed a week to allow time for Vincendon-Dumoulin to carry out a survey and make astronomical observations. The two ships came within sight of the Snares on the
evening of 22 March. Stewart Island was sighted soon after leaving the vicinity of the Snares but because of contrary winds it was 30 March before the expedition reached Otago Harbour. The three days allocated at the harbour were considered sufficient time to establish its longitude and for J. A Duroch (q.v.), a junior officer on the
Astrolabe to carry out a survey. By 8 April, d'Urville was approaching the southern side of Banks Peninsula but English charts he consulted delineated Akaroa Harbour on the eastern side of the peninsula and confused him. He hesitated to enter the harbour he was approaching. D'Urville most likely carried one of Norie's (q.v.) Pacific
charts or Wyld's chart of 1834 or 1837 (see Map Wyl 8.1, and Figure 8.1, Chapter 8, BH1). Eventually d'Urville anchored the Astrolabe safely in Akarooa Harbour after some difficult moments. She was later joined by the Zélée. While at Akaroa, J. A. P. Boyer (q.v.), a naval cadet, travelled to Peraki where he assisted a whaling vessel
and surveyed Peraki Harbour. Leaving the vicinity of Banks Peninsula, the expedition proceeded on a northerly course, following the coast. By 21 April, the two corvettes were off Cape Campbell, the northern limit d'Urville had earlier set for surveying work. The ships arrived off Kororareka, Bay of islands, on 16 April 1840 and
d'Urville left the vicinity of New Zealand for the last time on 4 May, making for Torres Strait. On 6 November the same year the two corvettes entered Toulon Harbour having been away on a circumnavigation lasting thirty-eight months. A number of New Zealand charts were published in Paris following the return of the expedition – for
details see Dépôt-général de la Marine. Earlier a fine general map was published in J. S. Dumont d’Urville, Voyage pittoresque autour du Monde, 2 vols (Paris: L. Tenré, 1834-35). (See Map Dum 1, Chapter 5 and Figure 5.10, BH1). A number of charts that relate to Dumont d'Urville's expeditions are listed in Chapter 5, BH1 - some are
illustrated - also see Plates XXXIV and XXXIV in Tooley, 1970b - also see some of the Plates in BHX).
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965 & 1969; Hargreaves, 1983; Brian Hooker, 1988b; Tooley, 1970b; Wright, 1950.
Du Moulin – see Moulin
Duperrey, Louis-Isidore (1786-1865), French naval commander in the Pacific. Duperrey, in command of the French corvette Coquille, cast anchor in the Bay of Islands on 3 April 1824. The expedition, on a scientific to the Pacific, remained two weeks before departing on 17 April. During the visit, A. Bérard (q.v.), J. A. R. de Blosseville
(q.v.), and de Blois (q.v.), carried out a survey of the bay. Accompanying Duperrey as his second-in-command was Dumont d'Urville (q.v.) who later commanded two important expeditions to the Pacific. The explorers did not visit the southern part of New Zealand but Duperrey and his officers received a considerable amount of geographical
data and survey information about southern New Zealand, from mariners at Port Jackson. Included in this material were sketches derived from surveys carried out by William Lawrence Edwardson (q.v.) who was sent by the government of New South Wales, in the sloop Snapper, to collect a cargo of flax from southern New Zealand, in 1822. Edwardson prepared a number of detailed sketches from surveys he made, particularly in the Foveaux Strait area. De Blosseville met Edwardson at Port Jackson shortly after the Snapper returned. Details of charts resulting from surveys mentioned in this entry are provided in Chapter 5, BH1.
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965 & 1969; Brian Hooker, 1988b; Ollivier, 1983 & 1986.
Dupetit-Thouars, Abel Aubert (1793-1864), commanded the French frigate Vénus during a visit to the Bay of Islands in November 1838. In the second quarter of the nineteenth century, the French government had been trying without great success, to foster a whaling industry. Whaling captains in the Pacific needed assistance in solving
diplomatic problems which sometimes occurred in foreign ports. Impressed by a report submitted by Dupetit-Thouars, the Ministry of Marine asked him to command an expedition to the Pacific in the frigate Vénus. A talented marine surveyor, Dortel de Tessan (q.v.) accompanied Dupetit-Thouars when the Vénus sailed from Brest on 29 December,
1836. It was nearly twenty-two months later before the expedition approached the Bay of Islands from the Kermadec Islands, anchoring off Kororareka on 13 October 1838. Dupetit-Thouars narrowly missed meeting Cecille (q.v.) who had sailed for the Chatham Islands in the Heroine. Requiring extensive repairs, the Vénus remained at the Bay
of Islands almost a month, sailing again on 11 November. During the stay in New Zealand Tessan carried out yet another survey of the Bay of Islands (see Map 26.2, Chapter 5, BH1).
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965 & 1969; Brian Hooker, 1988b.
Durand-Dubraye, Louis Alexandre, French hydrographer, accompanied the expedition of Cécille (q.v.) in the Héroïne and worked as assistant hydrographer during the visit to New Zealand and the Chatham Islands in 1838. Durand-Dubraye and Fournier (q.v.) carried out surveys in the Bay of Islands, Lyttelton Harbour, Port Levy, Akaroa
Harbour, and the Chatham Islands. For details of published charts that resulted from the surveys, see Dépôt-général de la Marine and Maps Dep 22 to 25b, Chapter 5, BH1.
Bibliography: Brian Hooker, 1988b.
D’Urville – see Dumont d’Urville.
Duroch, Joseph Antoine, accompanied Dumont d'Urville's 1840 expedition as a junior surveying officer. Duroch carried out a survey of Otago Harbour (see Map 29.1, Chapter 5, BH1).
Bibliography: Brian Hooker, 1983b.
*Du Val, Pierre (1618 [or 1619] – 1683), a nephew of the great French cartographer, Nicolas Sanson (q.v.), was born at Abbeville. Du Val’s cartographic work displays the influence of Sanson but it is not up to Sanson’s high standard. Du Val’s world map of 1660 published in Paris, portrays New Zealand’s western littoral beside the name
and date "Nouvelle Zelande 1654" (sic). The placement of the name between the discovered west coast, and the hypothetical east coast provided the basis of the continental theory. Part of New Zealand also appears in a world map published in 1661 and in later editions of Du Val’s pocket-size geography book. In this map (see the
illustration in Shirley, 1984), Du Val omitted New Zealand’s west coast and named the hypothetical east coast "N. Zelande". Shirley, 1984, lists nine world maps by Du Val, all of which show part of New Zealand.
Bibliography: Shirley, 1984; Tooley, 1970a
Edwardson, William Lawrence, a New South Wales mariner, carried out important surveys in southern New Zealand waters in the sloop Snapper, in 1822-23, during a flax-gathering expedition. The voyage originated in New South Wales. Some of Edwardson’s sketches came into French hands at Sydney and were published in Duperrey's (q.v.)
Atlas Hydrographie (1827) (see Maps Dep 6a.1, Dep 6c.1, Chapter 5, BH1). Also in 1822, Edwardson surveyed Henrietta Bay, Ruapuke Island and the sketch he prepared, "Rouabouki Road," later came into the possession of the British Hydrographer. The plan was published, without acknowledgment to Edwardson, as BA Chart No. 1328, in 1840 (see Map Bri 25.1, Chapter 4, BH1 - also see two of Edwardson's manuscripts in illustrated in Maling, 1969 - also
see BHX - Plates 38 and 30).
Manuscripts: HO; WTU.
Bibliography: Howard, 1940; Maling, 1969; J.O’C. Ross, 1969.
Enderly, Charles - see Pelham Richardson.
*Eugene Map – detail from the Eugene map is illustrated in Maling, 1969 - also see Tasman.
Bibliography: Maling, 1969; Sharp, 1968.
Evans, Frederick, held the position of Hydrographer of the Navy from 1874 to 1884. He had earlier served on HMS Acheron during the time of J. L. Stokes (q.v.) surveys.
Manuscripts: HO; WTU.
Bibliography: Day, 1967; Natusch, 1978; Olsen, 1992; Ritchie, 1968; J. O’C. Ross, 1969.
Faden, William (1750 – 1836 - portrait left), London publisher and
cartographer. Faden succeeded Thomas Jefferys (q.v.) and the firm was then styled Jefferys & Faden. Faden’s map of the southern hemisphere was published in 1775 and shows New Zealand after Cook.
Fairfowl George (sometimes given as Fairfall or Fairfoul), Royal Navy surgeon and surveyor. Little is known about George Fairfowl except that he served as a surgeon on HMS Dromedary (Richard Skinner), during a visit to New Zealand waters in 1820. Fairfowl prepared several sketches including a chart titled “SKETCH / of / the coast of NEW
ZEALAND / from Doubtless-bay / to / CAPE BRETT." Fairfowl is listed as being on the Hive in 1834. (See BHX - Plate 33.)
Manuscripts: HO; WTU.
Bibliography: Olsen, 1992; J. O’C. Ross, 1969.
Fer, Nicholas, de (1646 - 1720), was a prolific publisher active from the early 1690s until his death in 1720. His most outstanding production was a four-sheet world map issued in 1694. In this map part of the western littoral of New Zealand is portrayed beside the name "NOUVELLE ZEELANDE" (see the illustration in Shirley, 1984).
Bibliography: Shirley, 1984.
Findlay, Alexander George (1812-75), British geographer and engraver. compiled a map of New Zealand for R. H. Laurie (q.v.).
Fisher, Peter, lieutenant on HMS Herald, 1840. With the assistance of Bean (q.v.) and Bowen (q.v.), Fisher carried out the first Royal Navy survey of Waitemata Harbour during the visit of HMS Herald (J. Nias), in March 1840. (See the illustration of Fisher's manuscript in Maling, 1969). The plan they prepared was published as BA Chart
No. 1349, in November 1840 but it was not listed until publication of the 1846 BA chart catalogue (see Map Bri 12.1, Chapter 4, BH1 - also see Plate 58 in BHX).
Bibliography: J. O’C. Ross, 1969.
Fournier, Joseph Marie (b.1772), French hydrographer, accompanied Cécille (q.v.) on the Héroïne, during a visit to New Zealand, in 1838. He was assisted by Durand-Dubraye (q.v.) when he carried out surveys in the Bay of Islands, Lyttelton Harbour, Port Levy, Akaroa, Harbour and the Chatham Islands. For details of charts prepared by
Fournier and Dubrand-Dubraye that reached publication – see Maps Dep 22, Dep 23, Dep 24, Dep 25a, Dep 25b, Dep 25c, Chapter 5, BH1. Fournier’s and Durand-Dubraye’s printed chart "Tokolabo & Koko-rarata Bays" (i.e. Lyttelton Harbour and Port Levy) served as the model when the British Hydrographer prepared a plate and published BA Chart
No. 1592 in 1844 (see Map Bri 23.1, Chapter 4, BH1 - also see Plate 70 in BHX).
Bibliography: Dunmore 1965 & 1969; Brian Hooker, 1988b.
Fox, William (1812-1893), statesman, explorer, and artist, arrived in Wellington, on 7 November 1842. In 1843, with three companions, he made an exploration of the Wairarapa in search of suitable land for settlers. In September 1843 he took up the position of resident agent for the New Zealand Company in Nelson. In February 1846, with
Brunner (q.v.), Heaphy (q.v.), and a Maori guide, Kehu, Fox explored the country southwest of Nelson, Lakes Rotoiti and Rotoroa, and the Matakitaki Valley. Fox was four times premier of New Zealand. His name is remembered today in the Fox Glacier, Foxton, and Foxton Beach.
Manuscripts: WTU, PRO.
Bibliography: Morrell, 1966; Hearn, 1990.
French Hydrographic Charts – French surveyors, cartographers and engravers made a major contribution to the early charting of New Zealand. Some of the finest printed charts of New Zealand, are bound in with atlases which accompany published accounts of the voyages of French navigators, who explored in the Pacific during the second half
of the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth centuries. The Dépôt-général de la Marine, Paris, also issued many of these charts as official single-sheet charts. Around the middle of last century, French engraving reached a stage of perfection, which has never been surpassed; thus, the New Zealand charts were superbly printed
from copper plates prepared by skilled engravers and script specialists. (See Dépôt-général de la Marine - also see Chapter 5, BH1 for details of French hydrographic charts).
[Continued in Part B - to go direct to Part B click Here.]
The dictionary is in three parts - Part A (this page) contains preliminaries and entries A to F, Part B contains entries G to R; Part C contains entries S to Z and the bibliography relating to Dictionary of early New Zealand Map-Makers. To go to any part first click on Contents above and in that page scroll down to Dictionary of early
New Zealand Map-Makers in Section A and click on the title required.