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Brian Hooker

New Zealand

 


  Contents


 

Dictionary of Early New Zealand MAP-Makers 
(Part B - G  to R )


Edited

By

brian hooker

       

© Brian Hooker 2006.


The dictionary is in three parts - Part A contains preliminaries and entries A to F, Part B contains entries G to R; Part B contains entries S to Z and the bibliography relating to Dictionary of Early New Zealand Map-Makers. To go to any part first click on contents above and in that page scroll down to Dictionary of Early New Zealand Map-Makers in Section A and click on the title  required.

Abbreviations: - BH1 -  Brian Hooker, Early New Zealand Printed Maps.– To access this work - click on Home and Contents above or below and then scroll down to the title. BHX  This indicates that a manuscript chart, plan or view is illustrated with notes in,  Explorer's charts and views of New Zealand 1642-1840. To access this work - click on Contents above or below and then scroll down to the title in Section A.
 


 

(Continued from Part A.)

G

 

Gall & Inglis, Edinburgh, published a general map of New Zealand as a section in a map of the Australian colonies, in 1851. (See Plate XLVII, Tooley, 1970b).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b.

Gilbert, James, London publisher. Among atlases published by Gilbert was Gilberts Modern Atlas (London, 1841). A South American map, which includes an inset map of New Zealand, was probably issued in a revised edition of the atlas c. 1846. (See Plate XLIX, Tooley, 1970b).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b.

*Gilsemans, Isaac, Dutch mariner and draftsman, sailed as supercargo and draftsman on Tasman’s (q.v.) 1642-43 voyage when a section of the west coast of New Zealand was discovered. Earlier in the voyage he sketched a fine chart of parts of Tasmania, and there is every possibility that he prepared a chart of New Zealand’s west coast in the same style, but if he did the work has been lost. Views of coastal parts of New Zealand which are bound in with a journal of the voyage, known as the "State Archives Journal", are usually attributed to Gilsemans, but there is no known evidence which confirms that these sketches or their antecedents were executed by Gilsemans. (See Plates 3 and 4 in BHX).
Bibliography: Heeres, 1898; Schilder, 1976; Sharp, 1968.


*Goos, Pieter (c. 1616-75), an Amsterdam bookseller, engraver and chart maker became renowned for his sea-atlases. He was also well known for the superb hand colouring of his charts. Goos catered particularly for the English market. In 1666 he published his, De zee-atlas ofter water-weereld,  which includes a decorative world map, and a Pacific chart. Part of New Zealand’s western littoral is portrayed in both prints; the world map includes the name "ZELANDIA NOVA" and the Pacific chart includes the legend: "ZEELANDIA NOVA is ondeckt Aº. 1642." Goos’ sea-atlas was widely distributed and popular; it was issued in a number of editions up to 1683. An English version, The sea-atlas of the watter-world, was published in 1668. French and Spanish editions were also published. Several of Goos' maps that include part of New Zealand are listed in Shirley, 1984. A chart of the Pacific is dated 1663; this chart was reprinted in 1666 and 1672 (see Plate LI, Tooley, 1970b).
Bibliography: Koeman, 1967-71; Shirley, 1984; Tooley, 1970b.


*Green, John see under Jefferys, Thomas.


*Greene, Robert, a London map-seller published a world map modelled on Dutch sources, in 1676. New Zealand is portrayed according to Tasman and named "Zelandia Nova" (see the illustration in Shirley, 1984.
Bibliography: Shirley, 1984.

Gressien, Victor Amédée (b. 1798), French hydrographer accompanied d’Urville’s (q.v.) expedition to New Zealand on the Astrolabe in 1826-27. He assisted with a number of surveys in New Zealand waters but only one chart prepared entirely by Gressien reached print (See Map Dep 9.1, Chapter 5, BH1).
Manuscripts: ANM.
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965 & 1969; Brian Hooker, 1988b; Ollivier, 1983.

Guilbert, Pierre Edouard
(1800-66) French hydrographer accompanied d’Urville (q.v.) during the visit to New Zealand of the Astrolabe, in 1827. Guilbert prepared or assisted in the preparation of a number of New Zealand charts some of which were published in d’Urville’s Atlas Hydrographique  (for details – see Maps Dep 10.1 to Dep 14.1, Chapter 5, BH1). The British Hydrographer also published Guilbert's "Current Basin", and "Blind Bay" charts as parts of BA charts – no.’s 1096 and 1097 (see Maps Bri 19.1 and Bri 21.1, Chapter 4, BH1 - also see Plates 44 and 45 in BHX). Guilbert’s data also appears in BA chart No. 2616 published in 1858, as an inset "Torrent Bay and Astrolabe Bay".
Manuscripts: ANM.
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965, 1969; Ollivier, 1983.

 

H


Haast, Julius von (1822-87), geologist and explorer, arrived in New Zealand from Germany in 1858. He accompanied Ferdinand Ritter von Hochstetter, the noted German geologist and explorer in his investigations. He stayed to make a topographical and geological survey of the west coast for the Nelson Provincial Government. Haast’s Canterbury explorations of 1861 to 1868, included journeys to the Rangitata, Ashburton, and Rakaia headwaters, to the glacier region near Mount Cook, and to Franz Joseph Glacier, which he named. In an arduous journey in 1869 down the Buller and Grey Valleys, five others accompanied Haast. It was Haast who honoured Arrowsmith (q.v.) the English map publisher by naming the Arrowsmith Range and Mount Arrowsmith, in 1861. He also traversed Haast Pass in 1863, although his was not the first crossing. He made the first systematic examination of the Mount Cook area. Haast’s name is remembered in Haast Pass and the Haast River. The Canterbury Provincial Government published some of Haast's maps, in the 1860s.
Bibliography: Fleming, 1966; Maling, 1990.

Halloran, A.H., master of HMS Osprey in 1845, surveyed Whangaroa Harbour, and Mangonui Harbour in Doubtless Bay, during a visit by HMS Osprey (F. Patten), in 1845. Data from the Mangonui survey were used to revise the BA copper plate originally modelled on de Surville’s (q.v.) plan of Doubtless Bay; fresh prints were made around 1846 (see Map Bri 3.4, Chapter 4, BH1). A separate BA chart based on Halloran’s survey was published as "Port Monganui" in Lauriston Bay’ – Chart no. 1791 (see Map Bri 4.1, Chapter 4, BH1).
Manuscripts: HO.
Bibliography:  J. O’C. Ross, 1969.

Hamilton, William John Warburton (1825-83), surveyor, explorer, and civil servant, first visited New Zealand in 1843. He returned to accompany J. L. Stokes (q.v.) in HMS Acheron, in 1848. One of his most important explorations was in 1849 when he made an inland investigation of North Canterbury. He climbed Mount Grey and made a plan showing the open country visible up the Hurunui and Waiau Rivers. Hamilton’s plan was incorporated in BA Chart No. 2529, "Cape Campbell to Banks Peninsula," published in 1857. When the Acheron was in Foveaux Strait, Hamilton and J. L. Stokes explored to the westward and descended the Oreti and Makarewa Rivers in the ship’s jolly boat. In May 1850, with Lieutenant Spencer, he made the first overland journey by a European, from Riverton to Dunedin via the mouth of the Clutha River. Later, Hamilton carefully examined the coastline from Banks Peninsula to Cape Campbell. Data gained by Hamilton, in association with Kettle’s (q.v.) data, were incorporated in part of BA Chart No. 2533 "Otago to Mataura River" published in 1857. Arrowsmith also used Hamilton's data when he prepared the map "Middle Island, sketch of country to Northward of the great southern plain", published in a British Parliamentary Paper, in 1850 (see Map Arr 33, Chapter 9, BH1 - also see Entry 26 in Hargreaves, 1962).
Manuscripts:  HO.
Bibliography: Hargreaves, 1962; Macdonald, 1966.

Hasselberg, Frederick, (or Hazelburgh) in command of the Perseverence, discovered uninhabited Campbell Island in late December 1809 or early January 1810. He named the island after the head of the Sydney firm he worked for. The British Hydrographer published Hasselbergh's sketch of Campbell Island in 1823 (see Map Bri 29.1, Chapter 4, BH1 also see Hasselbergh's sketch as Plate 31 in BHX).
Manuscripts: HO.
Bibliography: J. O’C. Ross, 1969.


Hawkesworth, John, editor of the journals of Byron, Wallis, Carteret, and Cook, published by Strahan & Caddell (q.v.), 1773 (see the various entries in Chapter 2, BH1).


Heaphy, Charles (1820-81), artist, draftsman, explorer, soldier and public servant, became one of New Zealand’s most eminent settlers. Appointed in London to the position of artist and draftsman to the New Zealand Company, Heaphy arrived on board the Tory (E.M. Chaffers) with an advance party of New Zealand Company immigrants, in September 1839. Heaphy accompanied Dieffenbach (q.v.), on the Cuba during a visit to the Chatham Islands in 1840. In October 1841 Heaphy and Tuckett (q.v.) explored along the banks of the Waimea River in Tasman Gulf. In February 1846, with Fox (q.v.), Brunner (q.v.), and a Maori guide, Kehu, Heaphy explored the country southwest of Nelson, Lakes Rotoiti and Rotoroa, and the Matakitaki Valley. In March 1847 Heaphy began a civil service career beginning as a draftsman in the Auckland Survey Office. He was eventually appointed Auckland Provincial Surveyor in 1856. In 1859, Heaphy joined the geological survey expedition of Ferdinand von Hochstetter and investigated mainly areas adjacent to Auckland and also the North Island thermal areas. In 1865 Heaphy surveyed and planned the towns of Hamilton and Cambridge and around this time he also carried out survey work for the Church of England. A large number of printed maps are derived partly from Heaphy’s surveys but only a few printed works are derived wholly from his surveys. Several maps lithographed by John Arrowsmith are modelled on sketches prepared by Heaphy (see Maps Arr 7, Arr 31, Arr 36, Arr 41, Chapter 9, BH1). An 1842 map of Cook Strait, with insets, prepared for the New Zealand Company credits Heaphy as the author (see Map Smi 8.1, Chapter 11, BH1). Heaphy prepared a chart of "Tasman's Gulf" in 1841 but the print is without a publisher’s imprint (see Map Smi 12, Chapter 11, BH1). Heaphy made an important contribution to the 1856 edition of BA general chart 1212; a printed note in the chart explains (in part) "The coast line of Middle Island from Wanganui Inlet to the Brunner or Arahura River is chiefly from the sketches of Mr Heaphy, Surveyor, made in an exploration in 1846; adapted to positions determined in H.M.S Acheron." The original BA chart of the Chatham Islands, Chart No. 1417 published in 1847, includes a legend (reading in part) ‘…and from a sketch by Mr Charles Heaphy draftsman to the New Zealand Company 1840’ (see Map Bri 28.1, Chapter 4, BH1). This chart also includes coastal views based on sketches by Heaphy. Heaphy’s sketches were again included when a new BA chart was published in 1879 and they were included in revised issues until very recent times. Heaphy’s work made an important contribution to BA Chart No’s. 2616 and 2591; parts of a legend includes the following credit: "Much of the coast line detail between Wanganui Inlet and Cape Foulwind is from surveys made in the exploratory journeys of Messrs Heaphy & Brunner, of the New Zealand Survey Depart. In 1846, adapted to the positions determined in H.M.S. Acheron".- Also see  the entries in Hargreaves, 1962. (Also see Plate 74 in BHX).
Manuscripts: AR; BL; WTU; HO; DUHO; NLA; RGS; Archives of the Church of England, Auckland.
Bibliography: Fitzgerald, 1990; Hargreaves, 1962; Standish, 1966, Taylor, 1959.

Herd, James, British mariner, first visited New Zealand in 1822 in command of  Providence and surveyed Hokianga Harbour. His sketch-plan reached Duperrey’s (q.v.) Coquille expedition at the Bay of Islands in 1824 through Thomas Kendall (q.v.), the missionary. The plan was published in Paris in 1827 (see Map Dep 7.1, Chapter 5, BH1). Herd returned to New Zealand in 1826-27 as commander of the First New Zealand Company’s expedition consisting of the barque Rosanna and the cutter Lambton. The venture is not well documented but according to a claim made many years later, the aim of the directors of the First New Zealand Company, the sponsors of the expedition, was to set up agricultural and commercial settlements at Hokianga and the west coast of the Hauraki Gulf. The two ships transported about sixty emigrants between them. The Rosanna, carrying saw-milling equipment and flax-working machines, sailed from London on 27 August 1825. A few days later she joined the Lambton commanded by Thomas Barnett (q.v.). The two ships approached New Zealand from the west and their first port of call in New Zealand was Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, where they anchored on 25 March 1826. Sailing from Port Pegasus after staying for a month, Herd's expedition visited "Molyneux Harbour" (the vicinity of the entrance of the Clutha River) and then Port Otago. (See the illustration of Herd's Otago Harbour plan in Maling, 1969.) Proceeding north, the two ships visited, in turn, Ship Cove in Queen Charlotte Sound, Cloudy Bay, Manganui Harbour (Port Underwood), and Port Nicholson. Before approaching Port Nicholson the visitors spent some days in Cook Strait. During the week the expedition stayed at Port Nicholson, a survey of the harbour was carried out. (see Map, Chapter 4, BH1 - also see the illustration of Barnett's manuscript in Maling, 1969). The Rosanna and Lambton next visited Mercury Bay and the Hauraki Gulf but it is most unlikely that Herd or any member of the expedition landed on the western side of the Hauraki Gulf during the time they were anchored. The explorers then headed for the Bay of Islands and Hokianga Harbour which Herd had visited in 1822. While at Hokianga, in 1827, Herd revised his earlier plan of the harbour; this was subsequently published by Norie (see Map Nor 4, Chapter 6, BH1). The enterprise failed to start a settlement although Herd bought land at Rawene. They moved on to Sydney where the two ships arrived on 11 February 1827. An interesting journal of part of the voyage kept by Thomas Shepherd (q.v.) is preserved in the Mitchell Library, Sydney. Herd was the first to provide information, which enabled Norie to lay down the east coast of the northern half of the South Island and both coasts of the southern part of the North Island correctly, in printed Pacific charts. (Also see illustrations of manuscripts in Plates 40 and 41 in BHX).
Manuscripts: ANM, ML; WTU.
Bibliography: Herd, 1832; Brian Hooker, 1993; J. O'C. Ross, 1969.

Hill, James, S., Royal Navy officer, assisted Stanley (q.v.) with the second Royal Navy survey of Waitemata Harbour, in 1840. The British Hydrographer used the new data to update BA Chart No. 1349 (see Map Bri 12.2, Chapter 4, BH1 - also see Plate 59 in BHX).
Manuscripts: HO.
Bibliography: Maling, 1969; J. O’C. Ross, 1969.

Hogg, Alexander (fl. 1778-1805), English publisher, of Paternoster Row, London, published several books which include accounts with maps and illustrations of Cook’s voyages. Maps of parts of New Zealand, modelled on the maps published by Strahan & Cadell (q.v.) are included in, Moore’s Travels (1779); Millers Geography (1782); Andersons Voyages (1785).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1979.

*Homann, Johan Baptiste (1663-1724), German map publisher, founded the most important and prolific  

eighteenth-century mapmaking firm in Germany. Homann set up a business at Nuremberg and he rapidly achieved a dominant position in German cartography. The firm continued until 1790. The principal Homann atlases were published in 1714, 1737 and 1780. Several world maps, published by Homann, include part of New Zealand’s western littoral with names (see the illustrations in Shirley, 1984).
Bibliography: Bagrow, 1964; Shirley, 1984; Tooley, 1970a.
 

House of Commons, London. Maps published by Order of the House of Commons are listed under Arrowsmith, Day & Sons, Standidge & Co., and Basire, in BH1.


Hughes, William, (1817-76), British cartographer, prepared maps of New Zealand for A. & C. Black, Blackie & Son, and Philips. (For details of the maps – see under the above-named publishers.) Hughes also prepared maps for other publishers during the period 1840-64.
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b.

Hurd, Thomas, (c. 1757-1823), British Hydrographer, held office as Hydrographer from 1808 until his death in 1823. The most significant change in the Hydrographic Office during Hurd’s term was the decision, in 1823, to supply charts to the mercantile marine and the public generally. Previously, charts had been restricted to the Royal Navy. Hurd re-issued Wales’ chart as the British Hydrographer’s first general chart of New Zealand, in 1816 (see Map Bri 1.1, Chapter 4, BH1). Also during his term, Hurd kept in print de Surville’s chart of Doubtless Bay (later to become Chart No. 1089 – see Map Bri 3.1 Chapter 4, BH1). The only fresh chart of the present New Zealand area, published during Hurd’s period in office, was the chart in two sections "A sketch of Lord Auckland’s Groupe", and "A sketch of Campbell’s Island" (later numbered 1114), published in 1823 (see Map Bri 29.1, Chapter 4, BH1).
Bibliography: Day, 1967; Howse & Sanderson, 1973; Ritchie, 1968.
 
Hydrographic Office  - see British Hydrographer.
 

I


*Isle – see De L’Isle.

J


*Jaillot, Alexis Hubesons (q.v.) as the most influential figure in map production in France  (c. 1632-1712), French map publisher, succeeded the Sansons in the third quarter of the seventeenth century. Jaillot published a fine world map, in 1674, which includes part of New Zealand’s western littoral beside the name "NOUVELLE ZEELANDE" and place-names. A number of different versions of Jaillot’s map are known (see the illustration in Shirley, 1984).
Bibliography: Bagrow, 1964; Shirley, 1984; Tooley, 1970a.

*Jansson, Jan (1588-1664), Amsterdam map publisher, was a contemporary and rival of the famous Dutch mapmaking firm of Blaeu (q.v.). Jansson’s atlases published from 1638, are famous, and include maps by many different cartographers. Two maps found in Jansson’s atlases, of interest from a New Zealand perspective, are "Polus Antarcticus", and N. Visscher’s world map (this map is mentioned under N. Visscher). Henricus Hondius printed Jansson's map of 1657, "Polus Antarcticus" which portrays the southern hemisphere south of about 15º S, made from a copper plate first engraved in 1639. Jansson removed a title cartouche from the plate and added part of New Zealand’s western littoral, the legend "NOVA ZEELANDIA detect 1642", and place-names. In the course of time, the copper plate passed from Jansson to de Wit (q.v.), and then to another Dutch map publishing firm, Schenk and Valk (q.v.), who continued to print the map well into the eighteenth century.
Bibliography: Koeman, 1967-71; Shirley 1984; Tooley, 1970a, Tooley, 1970b.

*Jefferys, Thomas (c. 1695-1771), London map publisher, one of the most prolific map publishers of the eighteenth century, worked in London between 1732 and 1771. Jefferys published John Green’s "Great Chart of North and South America", in six sheets, in February 1753. Sheet 5 portrays the Pacific Ocean and the tracks of the early navigators including Magellan, Quirós, Le Maire, and Tasman. In this chart, part of New Zealand’s western littoral is laid down beside the legend "NEW ZEELAND INHABITED" and place-names (see Figure 1.12 - detail - Chapter 1, BH1). This was an important chart used at sea by eighteenth-century Pacific explorers. The sheet was revised at least four times; an issue updated in 1775, depicts the tracks of later navigators including Byron, Wallis, Bougainville, and Cook.
Bibliography: Stevens and Tree, 1967; Tooley, 1970a; Wallis, 1965.

Johnson, George, Royal Navy surveyor, was master of HMS Conway (C. R. Drinkwater Bethune) during the survey of Port Underwood in 1837. Johnson’s plan "Port Underwood in Cloudy Bay" was sketched by C. R. Read (q.v.) a midshipman and published as BA Chart No. 1272, in 1840. The chart was first listed in the 1846 issue of the BA chart catalogue (see Map Bri 16.1, Chapter 4, BH1 also see Plate 57 BHX).
Manuscripts: HO.
Bibliography: J. O’C. Ross, 1969.

Johnston, William (1802-88), atlas and map publisher, founded the firm of W. & A. K. Johnston, in Edinburgh, in 1825. A younger brother, Alexander Keith Johnston (1804-71) joined the business in 1826. Among atlases published by the Johnstons during the period under review are, A. K. Johnston, National Atlas of Historical, Commercial and Political Geography (1844), and, A. K. Johnston National Atlas of Historical, Commercial and Political Geography, Lithographic edition [1849]. The atlases were reissued in various editions. An 1844 map of New Zealand is reproduced in Tooley, 1970b - Plate LX. The Johnstons also prepared, engraved or published several maps related to church schemes in New Zealand. (See Maps Joh 1 to Joh 1.4 and Joh 2 to Joh 5, Chapter 14, BH1).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b; Tooley, 1979.

*Jollain, Gerard, a minor French publisher in the late seventeenth century at Paris, usually re-issued maps using old copper plates. Around 1670 Jollain published a world map in two hemispheres. Part of New Zealand is portrayed according to other French maps of the period with a hypothetical east coast and the name "Nouvelle Zelande 1654" [sic]. The hypothetical land is named "Terre de Quir" an obvious misrepresentation of land discovered by Pedro Fernândez de Quirós in 1606 - Espiritu Santo (see the illustration in Shirley, 1984)
Bibliography: Shirley, 1984.

Jones, Jacob,
engraver, prepared the plates, at Wellington, for maps published by Bluett (q.v.).
Bibliography: Hargreaves, 1982.


Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, TheseeRoyal Geographical Society, London.


Jouvency Miroir de, hydrographer on the Espérance, 1793, prepared a chart of the northern part of Northland when d’Entrecasteaux’s (q.v.) expedition inspected the area without landing, on 11 March 1793.

Manuscripts: ANM.
Bibliography: Brian Hooker, 1988b.
 

K


Kendall, Thomas (1778-1832), missionary, supplied a copy of Herd’s (q.v.) sketch-plan of Hokianga Harbour to Duperrey’s (q.v.) expedition at the Bay of Islands in 1824 (see Map Dep 7.1, Chapter 5, BH1).
Bibliography: Sharp, 1971.

Kent, John Rodolphus (c. 1780-1837), New South Wales and New Zealand mariner, commanded several vessels in the 1820s and 1830s. including Prince Regent, Mermaid, Elizabeth Henrietta, Elizabeth, Snapper, Emma Kemp, Governor Macquarie. Kent surveyed or entered at an early date a number of harbours including, Waitemata, Hokianga, Kawhia, Raglan, and Port Nicholson. He was the first European navigator to enter the Waitemata Harbour. He is recognised as the most notable early marine surveyor, unattached to official British and French expeditions. His only work to reach print was his plan of Waitemata Harbour, sketched in 1820, but he was denied the credit for this. Norie published the plan in 1838 and credited Herd (q.v.) as the surveyor (see Map Nor 3, Chapter 6, BH1). Clint (q.v.) copied Norie’s work in 1839 (see Map Cli 4, Chapter 13, BH1 - also see Figure 4.2, Chapter 4, BH1; also see Plates 34, 35 and 36 in BHX for illustrations of original sketches of New Zealand coastal scenes by Kent.)
Manuscripts: HO; ML.
Bibliography: Brian Hooker, 1986b, 1990, 1993; J. O’C. Ross, 1969, 1978-79.

Kettle, Charles Henry (1820-62), surveyor and explorer, arrived on the Oriental on 31 January 1840, and joined the New Zealand Company’s (q.v.) survey staff under Mein Smith (q.v.). For the next two years, Kettle explored and surveyed in the Wellington, Hutt and Porirua districts. In May 1842, Kettle and Alfred Wills made a notable exploration, crossing the Tararuas from the east side into the Wairarapa and then traversing the Rimutakas to Port Nicholson. In the late 1840s, as principal surveyor, Kettle organised and supervised the first effective survey of most of the Otago Block. Johnson’s general map published in 1844, credits Kettle’s work (see Map Joh 1.1, Chapter 14, BH1). Kettle’s plan "Map of the Suburban Lands in the settlement of Otago" was published in 1849 for the New Zealand Company. Data gained through surveys carried out by Kettle were incorporated in BA Chart No. 2533, "Otago to Mataura River and Ruapuke Island," published in 1857.
Manuscripts: PRO.
Bibliography: Sharp, 1966.

*Keulen, Johannes Van (1654-1715), Amsterdam chart publisher, founded a chart-publishing firm at Amsterdam and produced a number of large marine atlases. He acquired the stock of the chart publisher Doncker (q.v.). Van Keulen’s, De groote nieuwe vermeederde zee-atlas ofter waterwerelt (Amsterdam, 1681), includes a Pacific chart, which belongs to a group of world and Pacific charts that portray part of New Zealand’s western littoral too far west, and beside the name "Staten Lant" or "Staten Landt" and place-names – see the explanation under Colom in Part A. Van Keulen also published a fine world map drawn in Mercator’s projection, which portrays part of New Zealand beside the name "Staten Land" (see the illustrations in Shirley, 1984.)
Bibliography: Koeman, 1967-71: 1972; Shirley, 1984; Tooley, 1970b.
 

Kiepert, Heinrich (1818-99), German map publisher, published a map of Australia, in 1849, probably in an atlas, which includes an inset map of New Zealand.


King, Philip Parker (1793-1856), Royal Navy surveyor, dispatched to the British Hydrographer from Port Jackson, N.S.W., several sketches based on surveys carried out in New Zealand waters around 1835, but he took no part in the surveys (see for example map Bri 8.1, Chapter 4, BH1). King is better known as the surveyor, from 1817, of large parts of the coast of Australia.
Bibliography: Day, 1967; Ritchie, 1968.

Kincaid, T.  An interesting south-western Pacific map prepared by Kincaid in 1790 is reproduced in Tooley, 1970b - see Plate LXII. New Zealand is shown after Cook with the name "New Zeeland".
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b.


Knight, C., London publisher, issued a version of Cook's New Zealand chart in [Craik] The New Zealanders, in 1830 (see Map Kni 1, Chapter 2, BH1).


Krusenstern, Adam Ivanovich (1770-1846), Russian explorer, became the first Russian circumnavigator in 1803-06. He made a significant contribution to Pacific hydrography and was respected internationally as an outstanding navigator. Krusenstern did not visit New Zealand but Dumont d’Urville (q.v.) honoured his name by designating the western cape of Great Barrier Island "Cap Krusenstern", in his charts. The first Russian version of Krusenstern’s Atlas de l’Océan Pacifique was published at St Petersburg, in 1813. The Atlas Iwzhnago Moria, published in 1824-26 contains a New Zealand map (see Map Kru 1, Map Kru 2.1 and Map Kru 2.2, Chapter 2, BH1). Part of a Krusenstern map (1835) is reproduced in Tooley, 1970b - see Plate LXV.
Bibliography: Dawson, 1885; Tooley, 1970b.
 

L


Lake, W, London platemaker, lithographed Cobham’s proposed plan of Wellington (see Map Cob 1, Chapter 14, BH1).


Lambert, George, commanded HMS Alligator when the Royal Navy ship entered Whangaroa Harbour in 1834. Lambert was searching for timber. During the visit Thomas Woore (q.v.) carried out a survey.


Laplace, Cyrille Pierre Théodore (1793-1875), French naval officer in the Pacific. Laplace, in command of the French corvette Favorite, was heading from Sydney to Valparaiso, when he anchored in the Bay of islands, on 2 October 1831. Laplace, in the course of a trading and flag-showing voyage, stayed only a few days, sailing again on 11 October. Accompanying the expedition as hydrographer was E. Pâris (q.v.) who had earlier sailed with d'Urville's expedition. Although one of the main reasons for the visit was to allow the sick members of the crew a few days rest, the opportunity was taken to work on a number of scientific projects, including a detailed survey of the Kawakawa River. New Zealand charts are included with the atlas published to accompany Laplace's account of his voyage - see Brian Hooker, 1988b.
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965, & 1969; Brian Hooker, 1988b.

Laurie and Whittle, London chart publishers. Robert Laurie (1755-1836), joined in partnership with James Whittle, in 1794, and the firm became one of the leading chart publishers of the nineteenth century. When Robert Laurie retired his place was taken by his nephew Richard Holmes Laurie (q.v.). Several charts relating to New Zealand are bound in with, John Purdy (ed.), The Oriental Navigator; or directions for sailing to, from, and upon the coast of the East-Indies, China, Australia, Ec. … 3rd ed. (London: Printed for James Whittle and Richard Homes Laurie, Chart-Sellers to the Admiralty, Ec. Ec., No. 53, Fleet Street. 1816). - (See Map Lau 1, Map Lau 2 and Figure 6.4, Chapter 6, BH1.)
Bibliography: Tooley, 1979.

Laurie, Richard Holmes (c.1800-58), British publisher, was a nephew of Robert Laurie (q.v.), a noted chart publisher and engraver. Two charts are included in R. H. Laurie’s western Pacific chart. Laurie also published a chart of New Zealand with inset plans in 1841 (see Map Lau 3.1, Chapter 14, BH1 - also see Plate LXVIII, Tooley, 1970b).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b.


Laurie, Robert see Laurie & Whittle.


Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland for Promoting the Colony of Otago. - see Map Joh 5, Chapter 14, BH1.


Ligar, Charles Whybrow (1809-79), land surveyor, was educated at Sandhurst before receiving a commission in the Royal Engineers. Ligar was appointed Surveyor General of New Zealand while serving in Ireland. He arrived in Auckland in December 1842, after an adventurous voyage and took over the position held by Felton Mathew (q.v.). Several sketches prepared by Ligar reached print (see Map Arr 28 and Map Arr 29, Chapter 9, BH1 - also see Entries 20 and 22 in Hargreaves, 1962).
Manuscripts: WTU; PRO.
Bibliography: Hargreaves, 1962, Platts, 1980.


Lizars, William Home (1788-1859), a noted British engraver engraved plates for maps including Black’s general map of New Zealand (see Map Bla 1.7, Chapter 14, BH1).


* Loon, Johannes van (c. 1611-86), engraver and chart publisher, was engaged in chart publishing during the second half of the seventeenth century. Van Loon’s Zee-atlas, published in 1661, includes a Pacific chart which belongs to a group of world and Pacific charts that portray part of New Zealand’s western littoral too far west, and beside the name "Staten Lant" or "Staten Landt" (see the explanation under Colom). Van Loon’s atlas at first included N. Visscher’s (q.v.) world map, but in 1666, a fine new world map was substituted. This map includes part of New Zealand’s western littoral beside the name "ZEELANDIA NOVA" and place-names (see the illustrations in Shirley, 1984). In the course of time, the copper plate used for printing the map, came into the hands of Moses Pitt (q.v.) who printed maps in England. Van Loon’s atlas was re-issued in fresh editions in 1667, 1668 and 1676.
Bibliography: Koeman, 1967-71; Shirley, 1953; Tooley, 1970b.

Lottin, Victor Charles (1795-1858), French hydrographer, first visited New Zealand in 1824 with Duperrey’s (q.v.) Coquille expedition. He returned on the same vessel, renamed Astrolabe and commanded by Dumont d’Urville (q.v.), in 1827. Lottin was author, alone, or in part, of a number of New Zealand charts which reached print (for details see Chapter 5, BH1 - also see Dépôt-général de la marine; also see Plates 46 and 47 in BHX for illustrations of manuscript works by Lottin).
Manuscripts: ANM.
Bibliography: Dunmore, 1965 & 1969; Brian Hooker, 1988b; Ollivier, 1983.
 

Lowrington, James (sometimes given as Lowriston or Lawreston), mariner, surveyed parts of Kaipara Harbour in Thomas McDonnell’s (q.v.) vessel, Tui, in February 1836. Data gained from Lowrington’s survey were most likely used when McDonnell compiled his Kaipara Harbour chart published by James Wyld (see Map Wyl 4.1, Chapter 8, BH1).


Lowry, Joseph Wilson (1803-79), London geographer and engraver, produced his Table Atlas which was published by Chapman & Hall, in 1852. For details of the general map included in the atlas, see Chapman & Hall - also see Plate LXXIV, Tooley, 1970b.
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b.

Luffman, John (fl. 1776-1815), London engraver and publisher. Luffman published a fine chart of Cook Strait after Cook - (see Map Luf 1, Chapter 2, BH1 and Plate LXXVI, Tooley 1970b).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b.

                                                          

M


McCheverty, W. A. M. prepared a map of the Porirua district, published by John Arrowsmith (see Map Arr 26, Chapter 9, BH1).
 
McDonnell, Thomas (1788-1846), Additional British Agent in New Zealand, a former Royal Navy lieutenant, settled in Hokianga in 1831 and engaged in timber trading. In 1834 during a visit to London, he compiled a general chart of New Zealand, which was published by James Wyld (see Map Wyl 1.1, Chapter 8, BH1). Wyld also published a chart of Kaipara Harbour, prepared by McDonnell, in about 1840 (see Map Wyl 4.1, Chapter 8, BH1 - also see Plate 68 in BHX). Although titles and legends in McDonnell’s charts suggest that he carried out surveys there is no evidence to support a view that he surveyed in New Zealand waters.
Manuscripts: RGS.
Bibliography: Brian Hooker, 1983 & 1988/1989; R. M. Ross, 1966; J. O’C Ross, 1969.
 
McKenzie, Daniel, American whaler commanded the whaling ship Samuel Robertson during a visit to New Zealand in 1839. The following sketches are attributed to McKenzie: "A Chart of / Cloudy Bay / & the adjacent Coast / New Zealand"; "Banks Peninsula"; "Bay of Islands". (See Plate 73 in BHX for an illustration of a manuscript work by McKenzie.)
Manuscripts: Old Dartmouth Historical Society Whaling Museum, New Bedford, Mass.
 
Madden, James, & Co., London publishers, with Hatchard published J. S. Polack's map of New Zealand in 1840 (see Map Mad 1, Chapter 14, BH1).
 
Malaspina, Don Alessandram, Spanish commander in the Pacific. An Italian, Malaspina commanded a Spanish scientific expedition consisting of two corvettes, the Descubierta, and the Altrevida, when the ships anchored off southwest New Zealand, in February 1793. The primary aim in coming to New Zealand was to repeat at Dusky Sound, gravity measurements already conducted elsewhere. Unable to enter Dusky sound, the two ships briefly visited Doubtful Sound. The expedition's chief navigator Don Felipe Bauzá  (q.v.) made a reconnaissance of the sound in an armed longboat. Bauzá 's survey-chart was later published by the British Hydrographer (see Map 27.1 and Figure 4.7, Chapter 4, BH1) .
Bibliography: McNab, 1907.
 
Mannevillette, see Aprés de.Mannevillette
 
Marion-Dufresne - see Dufresne
 
Marlow, Captain, assisted with the preparation of a sketch for a British Parliamentary Paper (see Entry 17, Hargreaves 1962).
Bibliography: Hargreaves, 1962.
 
Mathew, Felton (1800-47), land surveyor; acting Surveyor-general, 1840. Mathew played an important part in the original survey and founding of Auckland, in 1840. Appointed acting Surveyor-General by Lieutenant-Governor designate William Hobson, at New South Wales, Mathew accompanied Hobson to the Bay of Islands, in HMS Herald (J. Nias), in late January 1840. In February, he visited the Waitemata Harbour with Hobson, on the Herald to search for a suitable site for the future Auckland. In September, Mathew returned to the Waitemata area to carry out a further exploratory survey and he accompanied the party of officials at the founding of Auckland on 8 September 1840. The briefest biographical note would be incomplete without mentioning the assistance given to Mathew by his wife, Sarah. She worked long hours helping with reports and also assisted with surveys in the field in primitive conditions. Mathew’s position as Surveyor-General was never confirmed and he was replaced by Ligar (q.v.), in 1842. Mathew died a broken man at the age of forty-seven. With his wife Sarah, he was travelling to London in 1847 when he became ill and died al Callao, Peru; he is most likely buried there. Some of Mathew’s plans were published in British Parliamentary Papers (see Maps Arr 14, Arr 15, Arr 16, Arr 17, Arr 18, Chapter 9, BH1 - also see the entries in Hargreaves, 1962).
Manuscripts: ACAG; AP; PRO.
Bibiography: Hargreaves, 1962; Brian Hooker, 1986a, 1987b; Platts, 1971, 1980; Rutherford, 1940.
 
Mein Smith, William see Smith, William Mein.
 
Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction - see The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction
 
Missionary Register, The – The Church Missionary Society, London, began publishing, The Missionary Register, in 1813, to record the activities of its missions and missionaries in many countries. Missionaries played an important part in the early European development of New Zealand and information derived from their journeys is contained in New Zealand maps included in early issues of the publication. For a list of published maps – see Seeley.
 
Mitchell, Captain, associated with Capt. Stokes' (q.v.) in preparing a map of "The Middle Island" published by the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, in 1851. John Arrowsmith (q.v.) prepared the plate (see Map Arr 8, Chapter 9, BH1).
 
*Moithey, Maurille Antoine (1732-1810), French map and globe publisher. Little is known about Moithey except he published a double-hemisphere map based on the North and South Poles. Part of New Zealand is portrayed tentatively joined to a huge Antarctic continent (see Plate CXII, Tooley, 1970b).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b.
 
* Moll, Herman (d. 1732), London engraver and map publisher, of Dutch origin worked in England from 1678 and produced a large number of atlases and other geographical works. An interesting double-hemisphere world map published by Moll, in 1688, shows part of New Zealand’s western littoral with a break near the fortieth parallel in the area of Cook Strait; the name "Nouvelle Zeelande" is inscribed as well as place-names originally conferred by Tasman (q.v.).- (See the illustration of this map in Shirley, 1984.) Moll’s map was probably modelled, in the New Zealand area, on Joan Blaeu’s (q.v.) world map of 1660, which also shows a gap in the coastline. (i.e. Figure 1.5 Chapter 1, BH1.)
Bibliography: Shirley, 1984; Tyacke, 1978.
 
Molyneaux, Robert (1746-71), master of the Endeavour, 1768-71, was responsible for the day-to-day running of the ship and also her navigation. He produced a large general chart of New Zealand. Molyneaux died during the return voyage. (See Plate 16 in BHX for detail from a manuscript work by Molyneaux.)
Manuscripts: HO; PRO.
Bibliography: Beaglehole, 1968; David, 1988.
 
*Morden, Robert (fl. 1669 – d. 1703), London instrument-maker, geographer and publisher, produced a variety of atlases and geographical works from about 1669. His, Geography rectified, published at London, in 1680, includes a double-hemisphere world map which portrays part of New Zealand’s west coast beside the name "New Zeland" (see the map illustrated in Shirley, 1984.)
Bibliography: Shirley. 1984; Tyache, 1978.
 
Morgan, E. prepared a map of Kororareka for publication in a British Parliamentary Paper (see Entry 15 in Hargreaves, 1962.
Bibliography: Hargreaves, 1962.
 
*Mortier, Pieter
(1661-1711), was an Amsterdam bookseller and printer, of French origin. Mortier published a fine Mercator-map in 1693. The map includes part of New Zealand’s western coastline (see the illustration in Shirley, 1984). He also published a number of other maps that portray part of New Zealand’s western littoral. Mortier took over publication of De Wit’s (q.v.) atlas at an early stage of his career.
Bibliography: Koeman, 1967-71; Shirley, 1984.
 
Mould, Thomas Rawlings (1805-86), soldier, engineer. As a second lieutenant in the Royal Engineers Mould held a variety of posts in England and Ireland before arriving in Auckland in December 1855. He commanded the Royal Engineers in New Zealand from the time of his arrival and from December 1857 held the position of Inspector of Public Works. He advised the governor, the colonial government, and the provincial government on a wide range of subjects. Mould contributed to the preparation of several maps published in British Parliamentary Papers (see Maps Day 4, Day 5, Day 7, Chapter 10, BH1 - also see Entries 36, 38, 39, and 41 in Hargreaves, 1962).
Bibliography: Crawford, 1990.
 
Moulin, John Peter, Du,
land surveyor, served as assistant surveyor to Felton Mathew (q.v.) in the early 1840s. His survey-sketch of the land reserved for Government House, Auckland, was published as a lithograph in a British Parliamentary Paper, in 1842 (see Map Arr 17, Chapter 9, BH1 - also see the entries in Hargreaves, 1962). Du Moulin also assisted with a survey of Kawiti’s Pa (see Map Arr 25, Chapter 9, BH1).
Bibliography: Hargreaves, 1962.
 
* Moxon, Joseph (1627-1700), English printer, map, chart and globe-seller, spent some time in Holland as a young man. Shortly after 1660, he became chart printer to Charles II. In 1655 he revised a copper plate originally engraved by William Kip for Edward Wright’s world map of 1610. In Moxon’s reprint, part of New Zealand’s western littoral is portrayed beside the name "Zelandia Nova" and place-names. This map is included in, Edward Wright, Certain errors in navigation, 3rd edition, (London, 1657). The western littoral and the name "Zelandia Nova" were no doubt modelled on data in Dutch printed maps of the period including maps published by Blaeu (q.v.). This is the earliest dated map (1655) to portray a part of New Zealand and the first English map to include part of New Zealand and the name. Attention is also drawn to the world map in the title-page of the 1657 edition of Wright’s book. Part of New Zealand’s western littoral is portrayed beside the name "Nova / Zelandia" (see the illustrations in Shirley, 1984).
Bibliography: Shirley, 1984; Tyacke, 1978.
 
M’Phun, W. R., Scottish printer, published Samuel Butler's book, The Emigrant’s hand-book of facts, concerning Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Cape of Good Hope Ec. (London & Glasgow, 1843). Included is a map of New Zealand prepared by Butler; this map was modelled to a large degree on Polack’s map (i.e. Map Mad 1, Chapter 14, BH1).
 
Musée de la Marine, Paris. A number of copper plates used in printing New Zealand charts, published in nineteenth-century French atlases, and later issued as single-sheet hydrographic charts, by the Dépôt-général de la Marine, Paris, are preserved in the Musée de la marine, Palais de Chaillot, 75116, Paris. The following copper plates are held: no’s 603, 604, 701, 702, 728, 729, 746, 747, 748, 749, 750, 751, 753, 754, 756, 757, 758, 816, 1160. For titles of the charts – see Dépôt-général de la Marine - also see Chapter 5, BH1. For an illustration of the copper-plate printing press click on the thumbnail. (to follow)

 

N


New Zealand Company, First - see Herd.
 
New Zealand Company, Second. The second New Zealand Company was not related to the first New Zealand Company which dispatched an expedition under Herd (q.v.), in 1825. The first ship sent out by the second New Zealand Company, the Tory, arrived at Port Nicholson under the command of E.M. Chaffers (q.v.), in August 1839. William Wakefield, the Company’s principal agent, immediately began negotiations with Maori for the purchase of land. In 1841 the New Zealand Company absorbed the Plymouth Company, an affiliated association after it had successfully established a settlement at New Plymouth. Maps published by or for the New Zealand Company are listed under Smith, Elder & Co. in Chapter 11, BH1. For details of the map included in New Zealand Company reports see W. & A.K. Johnston. Also see Standidge.
Bibliography: McLintock 1966b.
 
New Zealand Journal see Chambers.
 
Nias, Joseph, commanded HMS Herald during the first Royal Navy survey of Waitemata Harbour in March 1840 carried out by Fisher (q.v.), Bean (q.v.) and Bowen (q.v.).
 
Nicholas, J. L. see J. Black.
 
Nops, J. G., Royal Navy surveyor. J. G. Nops’ survey-sketch of Whangaruru Harbour, made in 1845, was published as BA Chart No. 1949, "Wangaruru Harbour", in 1849. The chart was first listed in the 1849 BA chart catalogue (see Map Bri 7.1, Chapter 4, BH1.)
 
Norie, John William (1772-1843), London publisher of navigational material, produced a number of Pacific charts from about 1812 when he took over the London firm of Heather. In 1819, he acquired the firm of J. Steel. Norie retired in 1839 but the firm continued under the direction of Charles Wilson. An important work of interest from a New Zealand perspective is, John William Norie, The Complete East India Pilot, from London, The original edition was published in 1816. Five inset plans are included in a paste-on continuation of the following chart bound in with an updated edition of Norie’s atlas, "A Chart of part of New South Wales, Van Diemens Land, New Zealand and Adjacent Islands with the Principal Harbours" 1835-7 – London. A study of the different states of Norie's charts provides an excellent understanding of the progress made in surveys in New Zealand waters in the first half of the nineteenth century.
Bibliography: Fisher, 1985; Brian Hooker 1986b; E Wilson. n.d.
 

O


Ormsby, G.O., Royal Navy officer, surveyed Manukau Harbour in 1845 and the sketch he prepared was published as BA Chart No. 1117 in 1846; it was first listed in the 1847 BA chart catalogue (see Map Bri 13.1, Chapter 4, BH1).
 
Orr & Co., London, published, A new general atlas of modern geography, which contains a map of New Zealand prepared by John Dower (q.v.). [c. 1843].  Although Tooley suggests 1865, an earlier date would be closer to the true publication year.
Bibliography: Tooley 1970b.
 
*Ottens, Joachim, and R. & J., Amsterdam cartographers and atlas publishers. The Ottens family flourished as cartographers and atlas publishers during the first half of the eighteenth century. The firm was founded by Joachim Ottens who had worked for Frederick de Wit (q.v.). When Joachim died in 1771, his sons Reiner and Joshua continued the business. The Ottens' firm reprinted a Pacific chart, first issued by De Wit, after extensive revisions had been carried out to the copper plate in the New Zealand area.
Bibliography: Koeman, 1967-71; Shirley, 1984.
 

P


Pâris, Edmond François (1806-93), accompanied Dumont d’Urville’s expedition to New Zealand in 1827, and he returned with Laplace’s Favorite expedition in 1831. Paris prepared a fine plan of the Bay of Islands and the entrance to the Kawakawa River, in 1831. The work was published in the atlas which accompanies the account of the voyage and later as a French hydrographic chart (see Map Dep 21.1, Chapter 5, BH1- also see Plate 51 in BHX for an illustration of an original sketch by Pâris.)
Manuscripts: ANM.
Bibliography: Ollivier, 1983.
 
Park, Robert (1812-70), a Glaswegian, arrived in Wellington, in April 1840, and was employed as an assistant surveyor by the New Zealand Company (q.v.). He later took part in the Otago survey. In October 1840, Park, Robert Stokes (q.v.) and W. Dean made a reconnaissance of the coastline from Port Nicholson to the Sugar Loaf Islands. It was this exploration which finally debunked the myth of a large "Taranaki Bay" which had persisted in many New Zealand maps since de Blosseville’s map was published in 1826 (see Map Blo 1 and Figure 5.3, Chapter 5, BH1). In 1842 Park was appointed Town Surveyor in Wellington and in 1850 Government Surveyor in the Wellington District. In 1864 he surveyed the town site for Ashburton. In 1842 Park produced several lithographic prints including almost identical plans of Nelson with the same title (see Maps Pak 1 and Pak 2, Chapter 13, BH1)
Manuscripts: ANL, DUHO, WTU.
Bibliography: Ellis, 1978, Hargreaves, 1964, Brian Hooker, 1990b.
 
Parker, John W., London, published two books (1837, and 1839) relating to early New Zealand which include maps prepared by John Arrowsmith (see Maps Arr 4 and Arr 5, Chapter 9, BH1).
 
Parkinson, Stanfield, editor and publisher, issued Sydney Parkinson's chart of New Zealand in, Sydney Parkinson A journal of a voyage to the south seas …, London, 1773, as Plate 25. (see Map Par 1, Chapter 2, BH1).

 

Parkinson, Sydney,  the artist, died during Cook’s first Pacific voyage and on the return of the Endeavour, Parkinson’s papers were handed to his brother. Stanfield Parkinson (see previous entry) who intended anticipating Hawkesworth’s official account of Cook’s first voyage. However, he was prevented by an injunction from publishing the book after only a few copies had been printed. The map was modelled on Bayly’s engraving published by Strahan & Cadell (see Map Str 1, Chapter 2, BH1).
Manuscripts: BL.
Bibliography: Beaglehole, 1968; David, 1988; B. Smith, 1960.
 
Parry, W. Edward (1790-1855), British Hydrographer, held the position of Hydrographer of the Navy from 1823 to 1829. No fresh New Zealand charts were published during Parry's term in office. A notable achievement by Parry was the publication of the first British Admiralty chart catalogue, in 1825.
Bibliography: Day, 1967; Ritchie, 1968.
 
Philip. George (b. 1799), was a British geographic publisher and globe maker who started business in 1834 in Liverpool and fourteen years later was joined by his son George Philip II. In 1856 the firm moved to London. Several New Zealand maps were published by Philip (see Plate LXXXII, Tooley, 1970b).
Bibliography: Tooley, 1970b.
 
Phillips, N. C., second master of HMS Buffalo, surveyed Tutukaka Harbour during a visit by HMS Buffalo, in 1837. Phillips’ plan was published as BA Chart No. 1275 "Tutukaka Harbour and Nongodo River [i.e. Ngunguru River] in the Gulf of Shouraka", in 1840 (see Map Bri 9.1, Chapter 4, BH1).
Manuscripts: HO.
Bibliography: J. O’C. Ross, 1969.
 
Pickersgill, Richard (1749-79), was appointed master during Cook’s Endeavour voyage of 1768-71, and returned to New Zealand as a lieutenant on the Resolution during Cook’s second Pacific voyage, 1772-75. Pickersgill made a notable contribution to the charting of New Zealand but none of his sketches reached publication. Pickersgill Harbour, Dusky Sound, was named by Cook to honour Pickersgill. Pickersgill produced charts of parts of New Zealand - see illustrations of the manuscripts in Maling, 1969; also see Plates 11 and 12 in BHX.
Manuscripts: BL, HO.
Bibliography: Beaglehole, 1968; David, 1988; Maling, 1969.
 
*Pitt, Moses, (fl. 1654-1696), London publisher, well known for a planned twelve-volume atlas. He produced, in 1680, an English atlas, which includes a fine world map printed from a copperplate previously used by van Loon (q.v.). The copperplate, which came into Pitt’s hands through a partnership venture with Jansson van Waesberge, was altered to include a dedication to Charles II, together with his coat-of-arms. In the map, part of New Zealand’s western littoral is portrayed beside the name "ZEELANDIA NOVA" and place-names (see the illustrations in Shirley, 1984.)
Bibliography: Shirley, 1984; Tyacke, 1978.
 
Plymouth Company, Thesee New Zealand Company.
 
Polack, J.,
see Madden.
 
Powell, Edward James (b. 1827), British draftsman, joined the Hydrographic Office as a draftsman in 1852 and made a valuable contribution to the publication of New Zealand charts. He is credited in a number of BA charts in the following or similar terms: "Reduced from the Original Drawings by Edward J. Powell". Some examples are: Chart No’s. 1896, 2054, 2525, 2527, 2528, 2529, 2533, 2535, 2543, 2553, 2559, 2574, 2589, 2590, 2591, 2614, 2626, 2684, 2685. For further details of some of the charts see British Hydrographic charts - Part  A. Powell also prepared a map for publication in a British Parliamentary Paper; "The seat of war, Waikato District." (1864) - see Entry 45 in Hargreaves, 1962.
Bibliography: Day, 1967; Hargreaves, 1962.
 
Pridham, J. M., Royal Navy surveyor, assisted J. L. Stokes (q.v.) on HMS Acheron during the survey of Port Nicholson, in 1849.
 
Purdy, John, see Laurie & Whittle.
 

R


Read, C. R.,
a midshipman on HMS Conway, sketched Johnson’s (q.v.) plan of Port Underwood, in 1837. The sketch-plan served as the prototype when a copper plate was engraved for use in printing BA Chart No. 1272 in 1840 (see Map Bri 16.1, Chapter 4, BH1 - also see plate 57 in BHX).)
Manuscripts: HO.
 
Richards, George H., British Hydrographer, held the position of Hydrographer of the Navy from 1864 to 1874. Richards had earlier served on HMS Acheron at the time of the New Zealand surveys carried out by J. L. Stokes (q.v.). During Richards’ term as Hydrographer a number of New Zealand charts were reprinted with corrections.
Bibliography: Day, 1967; Natusch, 1978; Ritchie, 1968.
 
Richardson, Pelham,  published, Charles Enderly, The Auckland Islands: A short account of their climate, soil, & productions; and the advantages of establishing there a settlement at Port Ross for carrying on the southern whale fisheries (London: Pelham Richardson, and sold by John Ollivier, 1849). The book includes three maps on one sheet, one map being an untitled world map; another map is of the Auckland Islands; and the third is of Port Ross.
 
Ritter, K., Berlin publisher. Published a map of Port Nicholson in 1842 (see Map Bes 1, Chapter 14, BH1).
 
Rivingtons, Hatchards, Burns, London publishers – see Society for the promotion of the Gospel.
 
*Robert de Vaugondy, Gilles, (1686-1766), French cartographer, known as Le Sieur or Monsieur Robert, was a noted cartographer who inherited the cartographic materials of the Sansons (q.v.). An important southwest Pacific map, prepared by Robert de Vaugondy, is included in, Charles de Brosses, Histoire de navigations aux Terres Australes (Paris, 1756). - (See Figure 1.4, Chapter 1, BH1). In this map, part of New Zealand’s western littoral is laid down too far west, beside the name "NOUVELLE ZÉLANDE" and place-names. The westerly placement indicates that parts of the map are derived from a Dutch chart or charts with a similar faulty placement (see the explanation under J. A. Colom). Another map by de Vaugondy, included in de Brosses’ work, portrays part of New Zealand in a similar fashion. James Cook carried de Brosses’ book with de Vaugondy’s maps, on the Endeavour, during his first Pacific voyage, in 1768-72. De Vaugondy’s world map of 1752, in two hemispheres, also portrays part of New Zealand (see the illustration in Shirley, 1984).
Bibliography: Shirley, 1984; Tooley, 1970a, 1970b.
 
Robinson & Edwards, London. published the first edition of the account with maps of George Vancouver's (q.v.) voyage, John Vancouver, ed., A voyage of discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and round the world; … and performed in the years 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794 and 1795 in the "Discovery" Sloop of War, and Armed Tender "Chatham", under the command of Captain George Vancouver, 3 vols and an untitled Folio atlas (London: Robinson & Edwards, 1798). Four charts of parts of New Zealand are bound in with the atlas as part of a large sheet titled "A Chart showing part of the S. W. Coast of New Holland with the tracks of His Majesty's Sloop Discovery and armed Tender Chatham Commanded by George Vancouver Esqr.. in the year 1791". (See Chapter 3, BH1). Vancouver's account with the charts was also in a French edition. (See Chapter 3, BH1).
Bibliography: Lamb, 1984.
 
Rochfort, John (1832-93), engineer and surveyor, arrived in New Zealand in 1851. Rochfort worked first under Park (q.v.). Later he prepared a fine map of the north-western part of the South Island which accompanied an article published in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, in 1862 (see Map Arr 11, Chapter 9, BH1).
 
Rossi, Giovanni de, was an Italian publisher who issued a world map prepared by M. A. Baudrand (q.v.), at Rome, in 1658. The New Zealand area is modelled on Sanson's (q.v.) work. A vague east coast is confused with Quirós' discoveries, and the date of New Zealand's discovery is given as 1654 instead of 1642. De Rossi also published a re-engraved version of de Wit's (q.v.) world wall map, in 1675; this map shows part of New Zealand's western littoral (see the illustrations in Shirley, 1984).
Bibliography: Shirley, 1984.
 
Rough, David, was the author of, Narrative of a journey through part of the North Island of New Zealand (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge [1852]. For details of the map bound in with this book - see Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Bibliography: Platts, 1971.
 
Royal Geographical Society, London. Founded in 1830, the Royal Geographical Society started publishing, The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, in 1831. A number of New Zealand maps were published to accompany articles in the period 1832 to 1860 Almost all the maps were prepared by John Arrowsmith (q.v.).
Bibliography:  Herbert, 1983.

 


 

[Continued in Part C - to go direct to Part C click Here.]

 

The dictionary is in three parts - Part A contains preliminaries and entries A to F, Part B contains entries G to R; Part C contains entries S to Z and the bibliography relating to Dictionary of early New Zealand Map-Makers. To go to any part first click on contents above and in that page scroll down to Dictionary of early New Zealand Map-Makers in Section A and click on the title  required.