Contents


 

Brian Hooker

New Zealand

 

Early New Zealand Printed Maps
Preliminary data and Chapter 1
 

By
Brian Hooker

 

©  Brian Hooker 2006.


This page contains preliminary data and Chapter 1 of
Early New Zealand Printed Maps.


For other chapters return to the list via Contents above  under the title Section B or scroll down to the end of this page and go direct to the next Chapter.

 



Summary of sub-headings


Author’s preface
Preliminary data
List of illustrations

Chapters:
01 New Zealand’s western littoral in maps
02 Cook’s charts and their progeny
03 Vancouver’s charts
04 British hydrographic charts
05 18th- and 19th-century French charts
06 Maps in marine atlases, and insets in Pacific charts
07 Missionary maps and diocese maps
08 Maps by James Wyld
09 Maps by John Arrowsmith
10 Maps in British Parliamentary Papers
11 Maps by Smith, Elder & Co.; Maps in The New Zealand
Journal
12 Additional maps first published before 1840 in atlases
and journals
13 Colonial lithographers as mapmakers
14 New maps published 1840-1847
Guide to entries through catalogue-number prefixes
Acknowledgements
General Index
Addenda


Preface

The aim of this work is to provide a catalogue and general review of early New Zealand printed maps, published up to the middle of the 1840s. However, I have not selected a firm cut-off year and some interesting maps which were first published at a later date are listed.

For the period 1644/45 to 1770, a selection of the more influential world and Pacific maps, issued after the time Tasman’s data became available, but before Cook’s charts reached print, have been included. From 1770, only maps which wholly or partly portray New Zealand are listed or mentioned.

In selecting the illustrations I have aimed at presenting maps or portions of maps in which the maximum amount of information is distinct and meaningful. Coastal profiles and views in insets were an important aid to early navigators and several examples are illustrated.

The object of the “Remarks on the illustrations,” which accompany the enlarged illustrations in each chapter, is to draw attention to particular points of interest.

I have made only a few references to colour. Although some New Zealand maps were issued with colour, many maps in present-day collections have been coloured in recent times. Whether a map displays original or recently applied colour, its appeal is enhanced with colour and the value is generally unaffected if the colour has been expertly applied. Some maps were hand-tinted at the time of publication and the different colours relate to various features in the maps.

Part of the fascination of collecting and studying old maps is the search for previously unknown editions or issues. I have included details of a number of maps not previously mentioned in cartographic literature but no claim is made that my lists are complete.

If this web site helps the beginner, interests the general reader, or assists the collector by providing some quickly needed information I shall feel that my work has served its purpose.

I wish to express my recognition to all previous writers on New Zealand maps; the bibliographies which follow each chapter, provide details of these earlier researchers.

B. H. May 2000 - revised December 2006.

Preliminary data

Orthography and capitals

Titles of maps are the same as in the maps but some capital letters have been reduced to lower case.

Single-sheet maps

The New Zealand maps are single-sheet maps or a section of a single-sheet map.

Edition, state, issue

The terms “edition” and “state” relate to the series of copper plates used for producing maps. Maps printed from different copper plates but bearing similarities belong to different editions. Maps printed before and after alterations to a copper plate are termed as being different states. The term “issue” is generally interchangeable with state.

Sizes

Sizes are of the printed area in millimetres, height before width.

Copper plate engravings, steel engravings, and lithographs

Maps not noted as lithographs or steel engravings are copper engravings.

Abbreviations

BA0 British Admiralty
BH1 The printed version of this title
BPP British Parliamentary Papers
c.oo  circa
d.oo died
et al. et alia (and other people)
fl.ooofloruit (flourished)
JRGS Journal of the Royal Geographical Society
lith.o lithograph

Sub-headings

Information given in map titles and legends is not always historically and geographically correct; nor do names always coincide with present-day terms. If the information is known, each sub-heading following Chapter 1, gives the name of the surveyor or publisher (and in some examples the place of publication), the year of the survey, the area, and the year of publication. The information is clarified in a note preceding each chapter.

Orientation in the illustrations

North is to the top unless otherwise stated in the caption or remarks.

Chapter 1 - New Zealand’s western littoral in maps

1.1 (detail from) J. van Loon, Pacific Ocean, Amsterdam, 1661.
1.2 (detail from) W. J. Blaeu - J. Blaeu, World Map, Amsterdam, 1619 – c.1650.
1.3 (detail from) W. J. Blaeu - J. Blaeu, Terrestrial Globe (68 cm.),
Amsterdam, 1617-1647/48.
1.4 (detail from) J. Blaeu, World Map, Amsterdam, 1648.
1.5 (detail from) J. Blaeu, World Map, Amsterdam, 1660.
1.6 (detail from) P. Goos, Pacific Chart, Amsterdam, 1666.
1.7 F. Valentijn, Map of South-east Indian Ocean and South-west Pacific Ocean, Amsterdam, 1726.
1.8 F. Valentijn, Map of part of the West Coast of New Zealand,
Amsterdam, 1726.
1.9 (detail from) J. Meurs, Map of America, Amsterdam, 1671.
1.10 (detail from) J. Luyts (after Sanson), World Map, Utrecht, 1692.
1.11 (detail from) A. Dalrymple, Chart of the South Pacific Ocean, London, 1767.
1.12 (detail from) T. Jefferys, Chart of the South Pacific Ocean, London, 1753.
1.13 M. Thévenot, Map of the South-west Pacific Ocean, Paris, 1663.
1.14 Robert de Vaugondy, Map of the South-west Pacific Ocean, Paris, 1756.
1.15 (detail from) Guillaume de Lisle, Terrestrial globe (gores), Paris, 1700.
1.16 V. M. Coronelli, Map of part of the West Coast of New Zealand, Venice, 1691.

Chapter 2 - Cook’s charts and their progeny

2.1 J. Cook, Chart of New Zealand, London: Strahan & Cadell, 1772 (1773).
2.2 J. Cook, Map of Hauraki Gulf and Coromandel Peninsula, London: Strahan & Cadell, 1773.
2.3 J. Cook, Map of Tolaga Bay, London: Strahan & Cadell, 1773.
2.4 J. Cook, Chart of Cook Strait, London: Strahan & Cadell, 1773.
2.5 J. Cook, Sketch of Dusky Sound with an inset plan of Pickersgill Harbour, St Petersburg, c. 1796.
2.6 J. Cook, Chart of New Zealand, (W. Wales), London, 1788.
2.7 J. Cook, Chart of New Zealand, Venice: A. Zatta, 1778.
2.8 J. Cook, Chart of New Zealand, Rome: G. Cassini, 1798.

Chapter 3 - Vancouver’s charts

3.1 G. Vancouver, Sketch of Dusky Sound with an inset plan of Pickersgill Harbour, London, 1798.

Chapter 4 - British hydrographic charts

4.1 (detail from) J.F.M. de Surville, Plan of Doubtless Bay, 1781 - c. 1804. (no. 1089)
4.2 J.R. Kent et al., Plan of Hokianga Harbour, 1833. (no. 1091)
4.3 T. Barnett, Plan of Port Nicholson, 1840. (no. 1273)
4.4 O. Stanley, Chart of Pigeon Bay, Banks Peninsula, 1845. (no. 1694).
4.5 (detail from) W. L. Edwardson et al., Chart of South-west New Zealand, London, 1833. (section of Chart no. 1099)
4.6 Cook, Vancouver, Edwardson et al., Chart of Dusky Sound & Chalky Inlet, 1833. (section of Chart no. 1099)
4.7 D.F. Bauzà, Plan of Doubtful Sound, 1840. (section of Chart no. 1281)

Chapter 5 - 18th and 19th-century French charts

5.1 A.B.M. Le Jar Duclesmeur, Plan of Spirits Bay, Paris, 1783.
5.2 (detail from) C. F. Beautemps-Beaupré, Chart of Northern Coast of New Zealand and Three Kings Islands, Paris, 1807. (section of Atlas-map 16)
5.3 J. de Blosseville, Map of North Island and northern part of the South Island, Paris, 1826.
5.4 Dumont d'Urville and P.E. Guilbert, Chart of Tasman Bay, Paris, 1833. (Chart no. 749)
5.5 (detail from) Dumont d’Urville & V. C. Lottin, Chart of part of Northland, Paris, 1833. (Atlas-map no21.)
5.6 (detail from) A. Bérard, Chart of Banks Peninsula, Dépôt-général de la Marine, Paris, 1848 (Chart no. 1164).
5.7 J.S.C. Dumont d’Urville, Map of New Zealand, Paris, 1833.

Chapter 6 - Maps in marine atlases and insets in Pacific charts

6.1 W. Stewart, Chart of Port Pegasus, London: Whittle & Laurie, 1815.
6.2 J.R. Kent, Plan of part of the Waitemata Harbour, London: J.W. Norie c. 1838.
6.3 J. Herd, Plan of Hokianga Harbour, London: J.W. Norie, c. 1838.
6.4 J. Cook et al., Plan of the Bay of Islands, London: Robert H. Laurie, 1822.

Chapter 7 - Missionary maps

7.1 “Chart of Northland," in, Missionary Register, London, 1822.
7.2 “Plan of the Bay of Islands," in, Missionary Register, London, 1822.

Chapter 8 - Maps by James Wyld

8.1 T. McDonnell, Chart of New Zealand with 4 inset plans (1st state - 1st ed.), London: J. Wyld, 1834.
8.2 “Plan of Victoria, Bay of Islands” (inset map in, T. McDonnell, Chart of New Zealand with 7 inset plans, London: J. Wyld, 1834-43 - 3rd ed.).
8.3 (detail from) T. McDonnell et al., Chart of Kaipara Harbour, London: J. Wyld, c. 1840.

Chapter 9 - Maps by John Arrowsmith

9.1 J. Arrowsmith, Map of New Zealand, London: Black & Armstrong, 1837.
9.2 J. Arrowsmith, Map of New Zealand with an inset map of the world, London, 1841.

Chapter 10 - Maps in British Parliamentary Papers

10.1 Plan of part of Central Auckland, London, 1842 (BPP).

Chapter 11 - Maps by Smith, Elder & Co., and maps in The New Zealand Journal.

11.1 Plan of Nelson Haven (inset map in, Charles Heaphy, Map of Cook Strait, London, 1842).

Chapter 12 - Additional maps first published before 1840 in atlases and journals

12.1 S.D.U.K. Map of New Zealand (1st state), London, 1838.

Chapter 13 - Colonial lithographers as mapmakers

13.1 R. Clint, Map of the northern part of New Zealand, Sydney, 1839.

Chapter 14 - New maps published 1840-1845

14.1 W. & A.K. Johnston, Map of the District of Otago, Edinburgh, 1845.
 



Chapter 1


New Zealand’s western littoral in maps


The purpose of this chapter is to list and discuss some of the more important maps printed after Abel Janszoon Tasman’s 1642-43 discovery of parts of New Zealand’s western littoral, but before 1773, when James Cook’s chart of New Zealand reached publication. A portion of New Zealand is portrayed in a large number of maps and globes published during the period, 1644/1645 to the early 1770s. Since Tasman thought it possible that this country was part of Staten Land, already known at the southern tip of South America, he named his discovery Staten Landt and this name soon appeared in printed maps beside the western coastline.
[fn. 1. Staten Land, at the southern tip of South America, discovered and named by the Dutch explorer Jacob Le Maire, in 1616, is portrayed in modern maps and named Staten Island. Another Dutch explorer, Hendrik Brouwer demonstrated in 1643, that Le Maire’s Staten Land was an island.
However, within a short time the name was changed to New Zealand.]
]


At the time of Tasman’s discovery, the Dutch held the lead in map publishing. During the eighteenth century leadership in cartography passed from Amsterdam to France. From about the time of the first publication of Cook’s charts, supremacy in map publishing was gained by England.


Maps inscribed with the name Staten Landt


A group of seventeenth-century printed maps which are inscribed with the name Staten Landt provide proof that these maps or their antecedents were published before the name Zeelandia Nova was devised in 1647 or 1648. Maps in this group are also distinguished by the fact that New Zealand’s western littoral is placed about ten degrees too far west. The faulty placement relates to the fact that a Dutch cartographer was unaware of the prime meridian used by Tasman when he reckoned longitude, and assumed it was a line passing over the islands of São Miguel and Santa Maria in the Azores, whereas Tasman reckoned longitude from the Peak of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. Tenerife was regarded as being ten degrees further east in the period under review. It seems likely that a publisher in the Netherlands, surreptitiously obtained a chart or charts from an unofficial source in the Dutch East Indies, soon after Tasman’s expedition returned to Batavia in June 1643. Some printed maps in the Staten Landt group and their authors are listed in the next paragraph.


Jacob Aertsz Colom (1599-1673), Zuyd-Zee,  Amsterdam, 1657; Johannes van Loon (c. 1611-86), Pascaerte Vande Zvyd-Zee, 1661 (fig. 1.1) k; Hugo Allard (1648-1709), Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Tabula, Amsterdam, c.1660;
[fn. 2. That Allard’s world map includes the name Zeelandia Nova as well as the name Staten Land probably indicates that the only surviving state of this map, now held in the Royal Library, Copenhagen, was printed following an amendment to the copper plates in which the name Zeelandia Nova was added.]  

 

Johannes van Keulen (1654-1754), Pascaert vande Zuyd Zee, Amsterdam, 1685.


The origin of the name New Zealand and maps published by Blaeu


Abel Janszoon Tasman’s voyage of 1642-43 was sponsored by theDutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC), founded in 1602. The Company’s eastern headquarters were established on the site of Jakarta, which was seized and renamed Batavia by the Dutch, in 1619.


From November 1638, the position of official cartographer to the Company was held by the Amsterdam map-maker Joan Blaeu, head of one of the most celebrated map-publishing firms of the seventeenth century. His father, W. J. Blaeu had held the appointment from 1633 until his death in 1638. Access to the Company’s confidential records enabled Joan Blaeu to update his maps and globes with Tasman’s data as it became available.
Until evidence of the group of maps with the printed name Staten Landt, was brought to light in recent times, scholars generally agreed that the first portrayal of part of New Zealand with names occurred in W. J. Blaeu’s revised world map of 1619. This wall-map titled Nova Et Accurata Terrarum Orbis Tabula Ex Optimis Quibusq. In Hoc Genere Auctorib. Desumpta, Et Duob Planisphaeris Delineata. auct. Gul: Ianssonio 1619, was updated by Joan Blaeu to include data relating to Tasman’s discoveries in the south-west Pacific. (Detail in fig. 1.2)  The only surviving copy is preserved in the Maritiem Museum “Prince Hendrik”, Rotterdam. However, it is likely that maps portraying part of New Zealand with the name Staten Landt and place-names, were in circulation two or three years  before the name Zeelandia Nova was first used in W. J. Blaeu’s 68 cm terrestrial globe of 1617, updated by Joan Blaeu in or near 1647. (fig. 1.3 - left - below -click on the thumbnail.)


In 1643, a Dutch navigator Hendrik Brouwer, circumnavigated Staten Land  at the south of South America proving it was unconnected with Tasman’s Staten Landt, but it is not necessary to believe that this discovery was the reason for the change of name from Staten Landt to Zeelandia Nova. Almost certainly Joan Blaeu devised the name Zeelandia Nova, in consultation with an official or officials of the Dutch East India Company at Amsterdam, but no records have been found which clarify the circumstances surrounding the renaming. It is probable that Blaeu provided the name Zeelandia Nova on an analogy with the name Hollandia Nova given for the putative Australian continent at the same time. Geographers and explorers hypothesised that a large southern continent existed and Zeelandia Nova’s discovered west coast no doubt added weight to the idea that another large continent stretched eastward across the southern Pacific Ocean. Obviously part of the motive in selecting the name Zeelandia Nova was to compliment the province of Zeeland, which was the seat of the second most important chamber of the Company but no resolution or contemporary reference has been located which confirms this point. [fn. 3. The primary assembly or board was the Amsterdam Chamber. ]

Blaeu published other maps which include the name Zeelandia Nova or Zelandia Nova, and place-names, beside part of the western coastline. Descriptions and titles follow: a world wall-map dedicated to the Spanish Ambassador at the Peace Conference of Westphalia, Caspara de Bracamonte, Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Tabula, Amsterdam, 1648 (Detail in fig. 1.4 - left - click on the ...............); a large  map of south-east Asia: Archipelagus Orientalis Sive Asiaticus, Amsterdam, 1659; and a folio-size world map: Nova et Accvratissima Totivs Terrarvm Orbis Tabvla,  usually found in Blaeu’s Atlas maior   (Amsterdam, 1662). (Detail in fig. 1.5 - right - click on the thumbnail.)  This map shows a gap in the New Zealand coastline in the Cook Strait area.
Additional Dutch maps published previous to 1770
 The name of the publisher, who first prepared a printed map with the name Staten Landt, is unknown. [4]  However, from about 1648 several Dutch publishers modelled their maps, in the south-west Pacific area, on either Blaeu’s maps or maps containing the surreptitiously-obtained data, or on a combination of both. Brief details of some world and Pacific maps, published in Amsterdam, which were modelled mainly on Blaeu’s maps in the south-west Pacific area follow.


Cornelis Danckert II (1603-56), Nova Orbis Terrarum Tabula. Emendata a I. Danckers, c. 1680.


Hendrik Doncker (1626-99), Pas-Caart van Zuyd-Zee, 1659; this chart was issued in a sea-atlas.
[fn. 4. Doncker’s chart is the earliest printed work to include a section assigned to a part of New Zealand.]


Pieter Goos (c. 1616-75), Orbis Terrarum Nova Et Accuratissima Tabula auctore Petro Goos, and a Pacific chart, Pascaerte Vande Zvyd Zee, 1666 (Detail in fig. 1.6 - left - click on the thumbnail.); these maps were issued in various editions of a sea-atlas.


Jan Jansson
(1588-1664), southern hemisphere map - Polus Antarcticus, 1657; this map was first printed from a copper plate engraved by Henricus Hondius, in 1639. In the course of time, the plate passed from Jansson to de Wit, and then to another Amsterdam publisher, Schenk and Valk who continued to print the map well into the eighteenth century.


Pieter Mortier (1661-1711), published a world map titled Carte Génerale De Toutes Les Costes Du Monde, Et Les Pays Nouvellement Découvert, ... , Amsterdam, 1693.


François Valentijn (1666-1727), published six maps and views relating to New Zealand; these are found in Valentijn’s six-volume work Oud en nieuw oost-indien (Dordrecht & Amsterdam, 1724-26). Two important maps in this group are: Kaart der Reyse van Abel Tasman (fig. 1.7 - left - click on the thumbnail.); and Staeten Landt Bezylt en Ontdekt met de Scheepen Heemskerk en de Zeehaen onder het Commande van den E. Abel Tasman. in den Iaare 1642. Den 13 December. (Fig. 1.8 - right - click on the thumbnail.)

Nicolaas Visscher (1618-79), published several world maps that portray part of New Zealand’s western littoral beside the name Zelandia Nova or Zeelandia Nova. Visscher also published a decorative map of North and South America, c. 1680 which includes part of New Zealand. The world map published by Hugo Allard, referred to above under the sub-heading “Maps inscribed with the name Staten Landt,” was probably originally published by N. Visscher or his father C. J. Visscher.
Frederick de Wit (1616-98), published a Pacific chart, Magnum Mare Del Zur cum insula California. The copper plate used in printing this chart later came into the hands of the Ottens family who revised the copper plate and printed fresh charts. Part of New Zealand beside the name Zeelandia Nova, is included in a double-hemisphere world map titled Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Tabula Auctore F. De Wit, published in 1666. In this map, New Zealand’s western littoral is broken at the fortieth parallel in the area of Cook Strait as it is in Blaeu’s map of 1660. (See the detail of Blaeu's map in fig. 1.5)


An Amsterdam map publisher, engraver and bookseller, Jacob van Meurs (1620-80), prepared a decorative map titled Novissima ... Totius Americae Descriptio, c. 1671 (detail in fig. 1.9 - left - click on the thumbnail.); this map portrays part of New Zealand beside the name Zelandia Nova.


Jan Luyts (1655-1720), prepared at Utrecht in 1692, a world map modelled on Nicolas Sanson’s work, Mappe-Monde ou Carte Générale du Globe Terrestre ... Par le Sr. Sanson. (Detail in fig. 1.10 - left - click on the thumbnail.)  Sanson is mentioned below under the sub-heading “French maps published previous to 1770.”
Other Dutch map-makers who prepared or published maps that include part of New Zealand modelled on earlier Dutch maps were: Johannes de Ram (1648-93), Gerard Valk (c. 1650-1726), and Carel Allard (1648-1709), son of Hugo Allard mentioned above.


English maps published previous to 1770


John Seller (fl. London, 1664, d. 1697), prepared and published in 1675, a Pacific chart titled A Chart of the South Sea. This chart includes part of New Zealand’s western littoral beside the name Staten Land;  Seller maintained a close association with map-publishers in the Netherlands and modelled his chart on one of the Dutch maps which includes the surreptitiously-obtained data relating to New Zealand.


Emanuel Bowen (c. 1720-67), prepared a south-west Pacific map titled, A Complete Map of the Southern Continent Survy’d by Capt. Abel Tasman and depicted by Order of the East India Company in Holland in the Stadt House at Amsterdam. The map is found in, John Harris, Navigantium Atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca or a Compleat Collection of Voyages and Travels (London, 1744). Bowen’s map was based on the French work of Thévenot, mentioned below, under the sub-heading “French maps published previous to 1770.
[fn.5. Thévenot’s map is illustrated in fig. 1.13.


A son of Emanuel Bowen, Thomas Bowen (fl. 1749-90), engraved a number of maps that include a part of New Zealand but in general they are not of a high standard.


Alexander Dalrymple (1737-1808), prepared the important chart titled 'Chart of the South Pacifick Ocean Pointing out the Discoveries made therein Previous to 1764.' (detail in fig. 1.11 - left - click on the thumbnail.) The chart was published in Dalrymple’s book, An Account of the Discoveries Made in the Pacific Ocean, Previous to 1764 (London, 1767). James Cook carried Dalrymple’s book to the Pacific during the voyage when he circumnavigated New Zealand in 1769-70.


Thomas Jefferys (c. 1695-1771), published John Green’s great chart of North and South America, in six sheets, in 1753. Sheet no. 5, portrays part of New Zealand and the legend “New Zeeland Inhabited.” (detail in fig. 1.12)


In 1688, Herman Moll (d. 1732), a German engraver who worked in England, published a double-hemisphere map, which shows part of New Zealand’s western littoral with a gap near the fortieth parallel. 
[fn. 6 A similar representation is illustrated in fig. 1.5.] Robert Morden (d. 1703), included a double-hemisphere map in his work, Geography Rectified (London, 1680). This world map portrays part of New Zealand’s west coast beside the name “New Zeland.”


Joseph Moxon (1627-1700), re-engraved a copper plate first prepared for printing a world map in 1610 and added part of New Zealand with the name “Zelandia Nova.” A revised print, dated 1655, is found in the third edition of Edward Wright’s book, Certain Errors in Navigation (London, 1657. [7]


Moses Pitt (d. 1696), prepared Pitt’s English Atlas (London, 1680), which includes a world map printed from a copper plate that had earlier belonged to the Amsterdam publisher van Loon. This map, dedicated to Charles II, portrays part of New Zealand’s western littoral beside the name Zeelandia Nova.


John Thornton (1679-1740), who collaborated with Seller, worked as a hydrographer and published atlases. Some of his maps include part of New Zealand.


Edward Wells (1667-1727), a mathematician and geographer, produced several world maps that portray part of New Zealand’s west coast.


Two other English mapmakers who prepared or published maps that include part of New Zealand modelled on earlier Dutch maps were, William Berry (fl. 1669-1708), and Philip Lea (fl. 1666, d. 1700).


French maps published previously to 1770


Melchisédech Thévenot (c. 1620-92), prepared the earliest French map to portray a part of New Zealand. This important south-west Pacific map is found in M. Thévenot, Relation de divers voyages cvrievx qvi (Paris, 1663). The name Zeelandia Nova is inscribed in the map. (fig. 1.13)


Jacques Nicolas Bellin (1703-72), the elder, prepared two maps that portray part of New Zealand’s west coast modelled on the Staten Landt group of printed maps, except for the name. These maps are included in, A.F. Prévost d’Exiles, Histoire générale des voyages (Paris, 1747-61). The best known of these maps is a south-west Pacific map titled, Carte Réduite des Terres Australes Pour Servir a l’Histoire des Voyages ... 1753. Jean de Surville consulted Bellin’s maps as he approached New Zealand in the St Jean Baptiste, in 1769. And Cook probably consulted one of Bellin’s maps on the Endeavour, in

1769-70.


Robert de Vaugondy
(1686-1766) prepared an important south-west Pacific map. Robert’s map is found in, Charles de Brosses, Histoire des Navigations aux Terres Australe,  2 vols (Paris, 1756). This map titled, Carte Réduite De L’Australasie, pour servir à la lecture de L’Histoire Des Terres Australes  (fig. 1.14), was modelled on a map or maps in the Staten Landt group of printed maps referred to above. Cook carried de Brosses’ book and de Vaugondy’s map on the Endeavour during his circumnavigation of New Zealand in 1769-70.\


Guillaume De L’Isle (1675-1726), published maps and globes. His terrestrial globe of 1700 includes part of New Zealand’s west coast beside the name N le. Zelande and place-names. (detail in fig. 1.15)


Nicolas Sanson (1600-67), was the founder of the great school of French cartographers which flourished from the late seventeenth century until the end of the eighteenth century. Sanson emphasised a hypothetical east coast for New Zealand in his maps and and in his world map of 1660, an eastern coast is portrayed which stretches across the southern Pacific Ocean as far as South America. (See the detail in fig. 1.10 - Luyts’ map was modelled on Sanson’s work.)


Some other French cartographers who prepared or published maps that include part of New Zealand modelled on earlier Dutch maps were, Phillipe Bauche (1700-73), Pierre Du Val (1618-83), Alexis Hubert Jaillot (c. 1632-1712), Gerard Jollain (fl. 1772), Nicholas de Fer (1646-1720), and Jean Baptiste Nolin (1657-1725).


Italian and German maps published previous to 1770
Vincenzo Maria Coronelli (1650-1718), who worked at Venice as a map-maker and a producer of globes, published a large single-volume atlas, Atlante Veneto  (Venice, 1691-96), which includes part of New Zealand’s western littoral as a text illustration. (fig. 1.16) The same map appears in Coronelli’s Epitome Cosmografica, 1693. A western hemisphere map that portrays part of New Zealand, bound in with an atlas published by Coronelli, is also known.


Giovanni de Rossi (fl. 1674-1690), an Italian, published at Rome, a world map in which the New Zealand area is modelled on Sanson’s work. De Rossi also published a re-engraved version of de Wit’s world wall-map, in 1675.


Johann Baptiste Homann (1663-1724), founded the most important and prolific eighteenth-century German map-making firm. Several world maps published by Homann portray part of New Zealand.

 



[Footnotes and bibliography for Chapter 1 follow - to proceed direct to Chapter 2 click Here.]


Remarks on the illustrations - Chapter 1


Figure 1.1 Van Loon’s chart extends across one hundred degrees of longitude and in latitude extends from 53½
o S to 52o N. The scale at the bottom of the chart shows Dutch, Spanish and English miles. The names Staten Lant and Sant duyne inscribed, indicate that van Loon modelled the New Zealand area either directly or indirectly on an unofficial chart showing Tasman’s discoveries. The two names are absent from Blaeu’s printed maps and globes. (see figs 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5) Also see the list of names with the areas identified in the notes below, under fig . 1.3.
Names inscribed in the New Zealand area in van Loon’s chart follow:
Staten Lant. is ondeckt Ao 1642
Clippige hoeck
Steylenhoec
Moordenaers bay
Tasmans reede
Zeehaens bocht
C. Pieter Boreel
C. Maria van Diemen
drie Coninge eylant
Sant duyne


Figure 1.2 When Joan Blaeu revised the copper plates first engraved for printing Willem Blaeu’s 1619 world map he was forced to carry out major changes to make room for Zeelandia Nova. In the earlier map a boxed inscription is present in the New Zealand area. He also removed a line representing part of the northern coast of of the mythical southern continent as well as some lettering. Names in the New Zealand area in the revised map follow:
ZEELANDIA NOVA
Clippige hoeck
Moordenaers Baij
Abel Tasmans Rede
C. Pieter Boreel
C. Maria va[n] Diemens
‘T Eylant dri Coningen


Figure 1.3.  The globe was first published by W. J. Blaeu, in 1617. Revised by Joan Blaeu in 1647 or 1648, the globe is not dated but according to a printed notice it was dedicated to King Christian IV of Denmark who died in February 1648. In the 1617 edition a large southern continent is portrayed but in this updated version the mythical land has been omitted. Globes were sometimes updated after the copper plate was revised and fresh gores or segments were printed and then pasted over an existing section. High land narked north of the name "C. Pieter Boreel" represents Mount Karioi. Names which appear beside the part of New Zealand's coastline delineated are given below.
ZEELANDIA NOVA
Clippige hoeck (Rocky Point - Cape Foulwind)
Moordenaers Bay (Murderers Bay - Golden Bay)
Abel Tasmans Rede (Abel Tasman's Roadstead - somewhere not far east of D'Urville Island)
C. Pieter Boreel (Cape Peter Boreel - the west part of Taranaki)
C. Maria van Diemiens (Cape Maria van Diemen)
't Eylant drie Coninge (Three Kings Islands)


Figure 1.4 Tasman's discovery of part of New Zealand became widely known through this famous work published by Blaeu. There are at least four states of the map which is a large wall-map comprising six sheets plus border sheets. Names inscribed in the New Zealand area follow:
ZEELANDIA NOVA
Clippige hoeck
Moordenaers Bay
Abel Tasmans Rede
C. Maria van Diemens
't Eylandt dri Coningen


Figure 1.5  This is the only map, published by the Amsterdam firm of Blaeu, which portrays part of New Zealand's west coast with a gap near the fortieth parallel where in fact Cook Strait is. In the journal of his 1642-43 voyage Tasman comments that he thought a strait was possible. Most likely all printed maps and manuscript charts that delineate a coastline closed are derived from an original chart that showed a gap but some copyists preferred the idea of a continuous coastline. Tasman himself adopted a general policy of a closed coastline in his charts unless there was proof of a gap.


Figure 1.6 Goos' sea atlas was a widely-distributed and popular publication issued in a number of editions between 1666 and 1683. His charts were well known for their superb hand colouring. Goos copied many of the charts in Henry Doncker's sea atlas.
Names in the New Zealand area, in Goos' Pacific Ocean chart follow:
ZEELANDIA NOVA, is ondeckt Ao. 1642.
Clippige hoek
Steylen hoeck
Sant dignen
Moordenaers Bay
Abel Tasmans Rede
Zeehaens bocht
C. Pieter Boreel
C. Maria van Diemens
t' Eylandt dri Coningen
That the name "Sant dignen" is included indicates Goos consulted one of the "Staten Land" group of maps as well as Blaeu's maps.


Figures 1.7 and 1.8  François Valentijn, the author of these two maps lived for two long periods in the East Indies as a Minister of the Reformed Church; from 1684 to 1695, and from 1705 to 1714. Valentijn compiled the maps after consulting the archives of the Dutch East India Company. The legend "Baey van Philippus en Jacobus" in fig 1.7 is unrelated to any of Tasman's discoveries and is an error; the name relates to the discovery by Fernández de Quirós, on 1 May 1606, of the bay of the same name on the north-eastern side of Espíritu Santo Island in present-day Vanuatu (see the names inscribed in Dalrymple's chart illustrated in fig. 1.11, and in Jeffery's chart illustrated in fig. 1.12). Names inscribed in the New Zealand area in the south-west Pacific chart follow:
N. ZEELAND of het STAATEN LAND.
Klippige hoek
Steyle hoeck
Moordenaars baey
A. Tasmans baey
Zeehaans bogt
Kaap van P. Boreel
Maria van Diemens Kaap
3 Koningen E.
De Zuyt baey
Sand duynen
Baey van Philippus en Jacobus

Names inscribed beside the coastline in the chart of part of New Zealand illustrated in fig. 1.8 follow:
Clippigen Hoek
Stylen Hoek
Moordenaers Bay
Abel Tasmans Reede
Zeehans Bogt
Cabo Pieter Booreels
Cabo maria van Diemens
Drie Koningen Eyl.
Abel Tasmans Passagie
The representation of a mountain relates to Mount Karioi.


Figure 1.9 This map of America prepared by Jacob Meurscum is found in a work entitled, De Nieuwe en Onbekende Weereld: of Beschryving van America en 't Zuid-land door Arnoldus Montanus, Amsterdam, 1671. The ship and figure in the cartouche are unrelated to the representation of New Zealand.


Figure 1.10  When Tasman discovered part of New Zealand, in 1642-43, he thought it was possible that the land stretched across the south Pacific as far as the southern tip of South America. In his maps, the French cartographer Nicolas Sanson developed the idea of an east coast for New Zealand, and in this world map, Jan Luyts has copied Sanson's hypothetical east coast.


Figure 1.11
Alexander Dalrymple modelled the New Zealand area in his chart on Valentijn's work (see fig. 1.7). The chart shows longitude reckoned east and west from London but curiously Dalrymple placed New Zealand's west coast 4 degrees too far west. Although Dalrymple's book was not published until 1769 he gave a copy to Joseph Banks before Banks sailed with Cook on the Endeavour, in 1768. Names inscribed in the New Zealand area in Dalrymple's chart follow:
STAATS LAND or NEW ZELAND
Rocky Pt
Murderer's Bay
Tasamans Road
C. Maria Van Diemen
Three Kings Id.
Tasmans Track 1642


Figure 1.12 This chart was designed for use by mariners at sea. Seventeenth and eighteenth century explorers traversing the Pacific Ocean were very much aware that New Zealand was inhabited as this map plainly points out. In fact, after accounts of Tasman's encounter with Maori reached publication some explorers deliberately steered clear of New Zealand. An interesting feature in this chart is the misplacement of the Solomon Islands which were discovered in 1568 and then "lost" for two hundred years.
Figure 1.13. Thévenot's book includes the first known reference to New Zealand in the text of a book published outside the Netherlands; there is a garbled account of Tasman's encounter with Maori at Golden Bay. In his book Thévenot wrote rather cryptically that the map originated from that used as a model when hemispheres were inserted in the floor of the Town Hall at Amsterdam. Thévenot does not identify the map but his map bears a striking resemblance to Joan Blaeu's 1658 map of south-east Asia which includes parts of New Zealand and Australia. One serious error in this map is with latitudes; the engraver moved all latitude figures down one place from 4o south. The map was updated in 1672 to correct errors and include rhumb lines. In a final updating in 1696, Thévenot, added Tasman's ships' tracks and noon positions in the Tasmania and New Zealand areas. Names inscribed in the New Zealand area in Thévenot's map follow:
ZEE: LAN: DIA NOVA
C. Cipige hoeck
Mordenaer Bay
Abel Tasmans Reede
C. Pieter Boreel
Cap. Maria van Diemens
Het Eylandt dry Komingen
Komingen


Figure 1.14 New Zealand is placed too far west in Robert de Vaugondy's map. Names inscribed in the New Zealand area follow:
NOUVELLE ZÉLANDE
C. Cipige
Morde Narr / ou Baye de Assassins
Rade d'Abel Tasman
C. Pieter Boreel
C. Marie de Diemen
I. Koningen oudes 3 Rois


Figure 1.15  Guillaume De 1'Isle was the most prominent French cartographer at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He produced a matching celestial globe for his terrestrial globe. New Zealand is placed about 5
o. too far west.


Figure 1.16 The map is included on page 150 of the atlas. The date 1654 is an error.

 



Bibliography


Campbell, T.
1976 A Descriptive Census of Willem Blaeu’s Sixty-eight Centimetre Globes Imago Mundi 28: 21-50.
Hooker, Brian. 1972 New Light on the Mapping and Naming of New Zealand The New Zealand Journal of History 6 (2): 158-167.
--------------- , 1990 Two Sets of Tasman Longitudes in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Maps The Geographical Journal 156 (1): 23-30.
___________, 2004 The earliest cartographic representation and name for New Zealand (this web site).
Koeman, C. 1967-71 Atlantes Neerlandici. 5 vols, Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarvm.
Schilder, G. 1976 Australia Unveiled. Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarvm.
Shirley, R. 1984. The Mapping of the World. London: Holland Press.1

 

Footnotes repeated from above.


 1. Staten Land, at the southern tip of South America, discovered and named by the Dutch explorer Jacob Le Maire, in 1616, is portrayed in modern maps and named Staten Island. Another Dutch explorer, Hendrik Brouwer demonstrated in 1643, that Le Maire’s Staten Land was an island.
2. That Allard’s world map includes the name Zeelandia Nova as well as the name Staten Land probably indicates 3a That the only surviving state of this map, now held in the Royal Library, Copenhagen, was printed following an amendment to the copper plates in which the name Zeelandia Nova was added.
3. The primary assembly or board was the Amsterdam 147Chamber.   
 

The question has been freshly examined – see the bibliography above.
4 Doncker’s chart is the earliest printed work to include a section assigned to a part of New Zealand. 
5 Thévenot’s map is illustrated in fig. 1.13.
6 A similar representation is illustrated in fig. 1.5.
7Moxom’s world map is the earliest dated map to portray a part of New Zealand.

 



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