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This is Chapter 2 of Early New Zealand Printed Maps. For other chapters return to the list in  Section B  under Early New Zealand Printed Maps in the

Contents page - or scroll down this page to the end and go direct to the next Chapter.


 

 


Contents


 

Brian Hooker

New Zealand

 

Chapter 2

 

Cook's charts and their progeny

 

By    

 

Brian Hooker

 


 

Charts published in London, Paris, Rotterdam, Berlin, Rome, Venice, Florence, Weimar, Leipzig, and St Petersburg, are listed in this chapter. Many of the charts accompany the different editions of Cook’s voyages, published towards the end of the eighteenth century, or near the beginning of the nineteenth century. No New Zealand charts are bound in with the account of Cook’s third voyage. The first official accounts were published in English by Strahan & Cadell, London. The same or similar charts, printed from re-engraved copper plates, are found in French, Dutch, and German published accounts of Cook’s first and second voyages. The Russian volume includes only Cook’s Dusky Sound chart.

 

In the list of maps, the title of the printed account or accompanying atlas in which each map is found is noted in an abbreviation in brackets at the end of each entry. The titles of the various editions and the keys to the abbreviations follow:

 

(SCI) John Hawkesworth, ed., An Account of the Voyages Undertaken by the Order of His Present Majesty for Making Discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, and Successively Performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, and Captain Cook in the “Dolphin” the “Swallow,” and the “Endeavour”: Drawn up from the Journals Which Were Kept by the Several Commanders, and from the Papers of Joseph Banks, Esq., 3 vols (London: Printed for W. Strahan & T. Cadell, 1773).

 

(SC2) James Cook, A Voyage Towards the South Pole, and Round the World. Performed in His Majesty’s Ships the “Resolution” and “Adventure,” In the Years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775, Written by James Cook, Commander of the “Resolution.” In Which is Included, Captain Furneaux’s Narrative of His Proceedings in the “Adventure” During the Separation of the Ships, 2 vols (London: Printed for W. Strahan & T. Cadell, 1777).

 

(SN1) Relation des Voyages Entrepris Par Ordre de Sa Majesté Britannique, et Successivement Exécutés par la Commodore Byron, le Capitaine Carteret, le Capitaine Wallis & le Capitaine Cook, ... 9 vols (Paris:  Saillant et Nyon, 1774).

 

(HT)  Voyage Dans l’Hémisphère Austral, et Autour du Monde; Fait Sur les Vaisseaux de Roi l “Adventure” & la “Resolution,” en 1772, 1773, 1774, & 1775, Écrit par Jacques Cook ... 6 vols and atlas (Paris: Hôtel de Thou, 1778).

 

(RA) Reizen Rondom de Weereld Ondernomen op Bevell van Zyne Majesteit den Tans Regeerenden Koning van Groot-Brittanje tot Het Doen van Ontdekkingen ... J. Hawkesworth Uit Het Engelsch Vertaalt (Rotterdam: Reiner Arrenberg, 1774).

 

(BVH) Reis Naar de Zuid pool en Rondom de Weereld, Gedaan, op Bevel van Zyne Brittannische Majesteit, met de Schepen, de “Resolution” en de “Adventure,” in de Jaren 1772, 1773, 1774, en 1775 ... Uit het Engelsch Vertaalt (Rotterdam: A. Bothal, D. Vis en P. Holsteyn, 1778).

 

(HS) Geschichte der See-Reisen und Entdeckungen im Sud-Meer Welche Auf Befehl Sr Grosbrittannischen Majestat Unternoen und von Commodore

Byron, Capitain Wallis, Capitain Carteret und Capitain Cook, im “Dolphin”, der “Swallow” und dem: “Endeavour” ...  Verfasst von J. Hawkesworth // aus dem Englischen Öbersetzt von J. F. Schiller (Berlin: A Haude und J. C.  Spener, 1774).

 

(MS) Puteeshestvie v Iuzhnoi Polovine Zemnago Shara I Bokrug Onagop Utchinennoe v Prodolzhenie 1772, 73, 74 i 75 Godov, Abglinskimi Korolecvskimi Sudami “Rezoluitsieiu” i “Adventuirom” ... (Sanktpeterbufge, Morskkago Shliakheshnago Keleshskago, 1796-1800).

NB. The sub-headings provide the name of the publisher (or place of publication), the area, and the year of publication.

 

The following charts are included with the English accounts

 

Strahan & Cadell, New Zealand , 1772 [1773]

 

Map Str 1  “Chart of New Zealand, explored in 1769 and 1770, by Lieut: I Cook, Commander of His Majesty’s Bark Endeavour” (495 x 382 mm.)   (SC1) (fig. 4.1??? and Remarks - click on the  thumbnail left.)

 

Strahan & Cadell, Hauraki Gulf and Coromandel Peninsula, 1773

 

Map Str 2a  (section of a sheet which also includes the next two titles)  “River Thames and Mercury Bay in New Zealand” (275 x 290 mm.)   (fig.  2.2) (SC1)

         

Strahan & Cadell,  Bay of Islands, 1773

 

Map Str 2b (section of a sheet which also includes the previous and the  next title)  “Bay of Islands in New Zealand.” (140 x 135 mm.)  (SC1)

 

Strahan & Cadell, Tolaga Bay, 1773

 

Map Str 2c (section of a sheet which also includes the previous  two titles)   “Tolaga  Bay in New Zealand” (135 x 135 mm.) (fig. 2.3 nnnnn)  (SC1)

 

Strahan & Cadell, Cook Strait, 1773

 

Map Str 3 “Chart of Cook’s Strait in New Zealand”  (272 x 272 mm.)  (fig. 2.4) (SC1) 

 

The following chart is included with the second voyage account:

 

Strahan & Cadell, Dusky Sound with an inset plan of Pickersgill Harbour, 1777

 

Map Str 4 “Sketch of Dusky Bay in New Zealand; 1773.” [with an  inset plan:] “Pickersgill Harbour No. XIII”  (200 x 370 mm.)  (SC2) Paris, New Zealand, 1774.

 

The following charts are included with the French account.

 

Map Str 5  “Tome III. Pl. 7. Carte De LaNle.  Zelande visité en 1769. et 1770. part le Lieutenant J. Cook Commandant De L’Endeavour Vaiß de sa Majesté .” (490 x380 mm.) (SN1)

 

Paris, Hauraki Gulf and Coromandel Peninsula, 1774

 

Map Str 6a (section of a sheet which also includes the next two titles)    “Tome III Pl. 9 Rivere Tamise Et Baye Mercure A La Nle. Zélande.” (c. 275 x 290 mm.). (SN1)

 

Paris, Bay of Islands, 1774

 

Map Str 6b (section of a sheet which also includes the previous and the next title) “Baye De Isles Dans La Nle. Zélande.”(c. 140 x 135  mm.)  (SN1)

 

Paris, Tolaga Bay, 1774

 

Map Str 6c (section of a sheet which also includes the previous two  titles)  “Baye De Tolaga Dans La Nle. Zélande.”  (c. 135 x 135 mm.)  (SN1)

 

Paris, Cook Strait, 1774

 

Map Str 7  “Carte Du Detroit De Cook Dans La Nle. Zélande.”  (270  x  270 mm) SN1

  

The following chart was published with the second voyage account:

 

Paris, Dusky Sound with an inset plan of Pickersgill Harbour, 1778

 

Map Str 8  “Pl 7 Plan De La Baye (Obscure) A La Nouvle.  Zélande. 1773”  [with an inset plan:] “Havre Pickersgill”  (200 x 370 mm. - overall)  (HT)

 

The following charts are included with the Dutch account

 

Rotterdam, New Zealand, 1774

 

Map Str 9 “No. VII Kaart Van Nieuw Zeeland in de Jaaren 1769 en 1770 bezogt door den Luitenant J. Cook met het Schip De Endeavour”   (469 x 370 mm.) (RA)

 

Rotterdam, Hauraki Gulf and Coromandel Peninsula, 1774

 

Map Str 10a (section of a sheet which also includes the next two titles) “No VII. De Rivier De Theems en Mercurius Baai in Nieuw Zeeland.” (c. 275 x 290 mm.) (RA)

 

Rotterdam, Bay of Islands, 1774

 

Map Str 10b (section of a sheet which also includes the previous and the next title)  “Eilandn.  Baai In Nieuw  Zeeland”  (c. 140 x 135 mm.)  (RA)

 

Rotterdam, Tolaga Bay, 1774

 

Map Str 10c (section of a sheet which also includes the previous two titles)  “Baai Tolaga in Nieuw Zeeland”  (c. 135 x 135 mm.)  (RA)

 

Rotterdam, Cook Strait, 1774

 

Map Str 11c   “No VIII Kaart Van Cooks Straat in Nieuw Zeeland”  (265 x 266 mm.) (RA)

 

The following chart was published with the second voyage account:

 

Rotterdam, Dusky Sound with an inset plan of Pickersgill Harbour, 1778

 

 Map Str 12  “Pl. XIV Schets van de Donkers Baai in Nieuw Zeeland  1773.” [with an inset plan:]  “Pickersgill Haven”  (196 x 368 mm. - overall)  (BVH) Berlin, New Zealand, 1774

                                                  

Map Str 13  “Carte De La Nouvelle-Zelande visitée en 1769 et 1770 par le lieutenant J. Cook Commandant De L’Endeavour Vaisseau de Sa Majesté // Carte Von Neu-seeland Welches in den Jahren 1769 und 1770. untersucht worden vom Lieutenant J. Cook, Besehishaber des Königlich Englischen Schiffs der Endeavour / No. 39.” (490 x 380 mm.) (HS)

 

The following charts are included with the German account

 

Berlin, Hauraki Gulf and Coromandel Peninsula, 1774

 

Map Str 14a  (section of a sheet which also includes the next two titles)  “Riviere Tamise Et Baye Mercure Ä  La Nle.  Zélande // “Die Themse Nebst Abbbildung Der Mercurius Bay In Neu Seeland” (c. 275 x 290 mm.) (HS)

 

Berlin, Bay of Islands, 1774

 

Map Str 14b  (section of a sheet which also includes the previous and the next title) “Baye Des Isles Dans La Nle. Zélande”  // “Die Bay Der Insel In Neu Seeland”  (c. 140 x 135 mm.) (HS)

 

Berlin, Tolaga Bay, 1774

 

Map Str 14c (section of a sheet which also includes the previous two titles)  “Baye De Tolaga Dans La Nle. Zélande” // “Die Bay Tolaga In Neu Seeland” (c. 135 x 135 mm.)  (HS)

 

Berlin, Cook Strait, 1774

 

Map Str 15c  “Carte Du Detroit De Cook Dans La Nle. Zélande”  //  “Carte Von Cook’s Strasse in Neu-Seeland” / “43” (265 x 265 mm.)

(fig. 2.4) (HS)

 

The following chart is included with the Russian account

 

St Petersburg, Dusky Sound with an inset plan of Pickersgill Harbour, c. 1796

 

Map Str 16 KAPTA ………………………………………………...   ….1773  …. [with an inset plan of Pickersgill Harbour inscribed with a Russian title]   (c. 200 x 370 mm.) (MS) (fig. 2.5)

         

Cook’s general chart of New Zealand, as originally published by Strahan and Cadell in 1773, was published in the following  re-drawn versions:

 

Map Str 17. A version of Cook’s printed chart of New Zealand (after Bayly’s engraving, 1772 – Map Str 1) from LA HARPE (Jean-Francois de) Abrege de I'Histoire generale des voyages, …,  Paris, Hotel de Thou, Laporte, 1780-An IX (1801). (280 x 229 mm).

 

S. Parkinson, New Zealand, 1773

 

Map Par 1 “XXV Map of the Coast of New Zealand discovered in the Years 1769 and 1770, By I. Cook, Commander of His Majesty’s Bark Endeavour”  (250 x 200 mm.) Published in, Stanfield Parkinson, ed., A Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas ... (London: Stanfield Parkinson, 1773).

 

Commissioners of Longitude, New Zealand, 1788

 

Map Com 1  “A Chart of New Zealand, explored by Captain James Cook in 1769 & 1770 in His Majesty’s Bark the Endeavour”  (570 x 365 mm.) (fig. 2.6) Published in, William Wales, ed., Astronomical Observations Made in the Voyages Which Were Undertaken by Order of His Present Majesty, For Making Discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, ... (London: P. Elmsly, bookseller to the ... Commissioners, 1788).

 

A. Zatta, New Zealand, 1788

 

Map Zat 1.1  “La Nuova Zelanda trascorsa nel 1769. c. 1770. Dal Cook Comandante Dell ‘Endeavour Vascello di S.M. Britannica ... 1778”   (445 x 355 mm.) (fig. 2.7 and on Home and Contents page.) Published in, Antonio Zatta, Atlante Novissimo  4 vols (Venice, 1779-85), Plate 16 in vol 1.

 

A second state printed in 1794 is known. (Map Zat 1.2)

 

G.M. Cassini, New Zealand, 1798

 

Map Cas 1 “La Nuova Zelanda Delineata Sulle Osservazioni Del Capitan Cook ... 1798”  (485 x 350 mm.) (fig. 2.8) Published in, G.M. Cassini, Nuova Atlante Geografico Universale 3 vols (Rome, 1792-1801), Plate 35 in vol. 3.

 

Bonne & Desmaret, New Zealand with 4 inset charts, c. 1788

 

Map Bon 1  “Carte de la Nouvelle Zéelande par M. Bonne, Ingénieur-Hydrographe de la Marine” [with 4 inset charts:]  [i] “Carte du Détroit de Cook”  [ii] “Baye des Iles” [iii] “Baye de Tolaga”  [iv] “Riviere de la Tamise et de la Baye de Mercure.”  (340 x 230 mm.)  Published in, Bonne  & Desmaret, Atlas Encyclopédique, 2 vols (Paris: Hôtel de Thou, 1787-88).

 

The next entry provides the title and details of a small Italian version of Cook’s chart published at Florence.

 

G. de Baillou, New Zealand, 1779

 

Map Bai 1  “Nuova Zelanda Scoperta da Tasman, e riconosciuta dal Capo. Cook nel 1769” (110 x 70 mm.)  Published in, Giovanni de Baillou, ed., Nuovo Atlante Generale  (Florence, 1779).
                                                          ◊

 

One of the first books published about New Zealand was, John Liddiard Nicholas, Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand, Performed in the Years 1814 and 1815, in Company with the Rev. Samuel Marsden, Principal Chaplain of New South Wales, 2 vols (London: James Black & Son, 1817). The following are titles of two maps which are found in the book:

 

J. Black, New Zealand, 1817

 

Map Blb 1  “Chart of New Zealand. with the Track of the Missionary Ship The Active, 1814 & 1815.  ... Septr. 1 1817.” (257 x 200 mm.) Published in, J.L. Nicholas, Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand, 2 vols (London: 1817).

 

J. Black, Bay of Islands, 1817

 

Map Blb 2  “Bay of Islands in New Zealand. ... Septr.1 1817.” (175 x 110 mm.) Published in, J.L. Nicholas, Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand, 2 vols (London, 1817).

 

A German edition of Nicholas’ narrative was published in Weimar, in 1819; the general chart was re-engraved and the title of the new chart included in the book follows:

 

Weimar, New Zealand, 1819

 

Map Blb 3  “Chart of New Zealand. with the Track of the Missionary  Ship The Active 1814 & 1815.  ...  Weimar / Im Verlage des Gegraph: Instituds / 1819.” (245 x 185 mm.)                                          ◊ 

 

The following map was published in English and German editions:

 

C. Knight, New Zealand, 1830

 

Map Kni 1 “New Zealand, explored by Capt. J. Cook, 1769.-77 ... 1830”  

(150 x 80 mm.)  Published  in [G.L. Craik], The New Zealanders  (London: Charles Knight, 1830. 

 

The next entry gives the title of the same map (Map Kni 1), re-engraved with a new title and published in a German edition at Leipzig.

 

Leipzig, New Zealand, 1833

 

Map Kni 2  “Neu-Seeland, erforscht von Capit. J. Cook, 1769-77.  Published in, Die Neuzeelander ... (Leipzig, 1833).     

 

Alexander Hogg, Paternoster Row, London, around 1779 to 1785, published several books that include accounts of Cook’s voyages and some of Cook’s maps. Hogg’s chart of Cook Strait, modelled on Cook’s work published by Strahan & Cadell  (i.e Map Str 3), is his best known work:

 

A. Hogg, Cook Strait, c. 1785

 

Map Hog 1 “Chart of Cook’s Strait in New Zealand.”  (210 x 330 mm.)

 ◊

 

The following entry provides the title and details of a map prepared by John Luffman.

 

J. Luffman, Cook Strait, 1800

 

Map Luf 1  “Cook’s Strait, New Zealand, ... 1800” (142 x 120 mm.) Published in, John Luffman, Select Plans of the Principal Cities, Harbours, Forts etc. in the World  (London: J. Luffman, 1800).

 

The first Russian version of Adam Johann Krusenstern’s Atlas de l’Océan Pacifique, was published in St Petersburg, in 1813. The following New Zealand map is included in an atlas published in St Petersburg, in 1824-26:

 

St Petersburg, New Zealand with an inset plan of Dusky Sound,  1825

 

Map Kru 1  “No. 12  KAPTA …………….  1825  [with an inset plan of Dusky Sound :]  “Plan Zaliva Duski.” (c. 895 x 590-690 mm.)  Published in, Atlas Iwzhnago Moria (St Petersburg, 1824-26).

 

 

The following French edition of the map listed in the previous entry (i.e. Map Kru 1), was published in the atlas which accompanies a three-volume printed account of Krusenstern’s circumnavigation.

 

St Petersburg, New Zealand with 2 inset plans, 1824

 

Map Kru 2.1  “No. 12 Carte de la Nle. Zelande et du Détroit de Cook 1824” [with two inset plans:] [i]  “Carte du Détroit de Cook” [ii] “Plan de la Baie Dusky.” (895 x 590-690 mm.) Published in, Atlas de l’océan Pacifique, dressé par M r. de Krusenstern Commodore de la Marine Impériale de Russie ... publié par ordre de la Majesté (St Petersburg, 1824).

 

A second edition of the atlas in two volumes was published in 1827. The copper plate used in printing the New Zealand map was amended and fresh maps were printed for this edition of the atlas. The second state bears the same date as the first issue, 1824. (Map Kru 2.2)

 

Figure 2.1 - J. Cook, Chart of New Zealand, London: Strahan & Cadell, 1772 (1773)

Figure 2.2 - J. Cook, Map of Hauraki Gulf and Coromandel Peninsula, London: Strahan  & Cadell, 1773

Figure 2.3 - J. Cook, Map of Tolaga Bay, London: Strahan & Cadell, 177

Figure 2.4 - J. Cook, Chart of Cook Strait, London: Strahan & Cadell, 1773.

Figure 2.5 - J. Cook, Sketch of Dusky Sound with an inset plan of Pickersgill Harbour, St Petersburg, c. 1

Figure 2.6 - J. Cook, Chart of New Zealand, (W. Wales), London, 1788

Figure 2.7 - J. Cook, Chart of New Zealand, Venice: A. Zatta,

Figure 2.8 - J. Cook, Chart of New Zealand, Rome: G. Cassini,

Remarks on the illustrations

Chapter 2

 

 

Remarks on the illustrations

 

fig. 2.1   The only major errors in this chart are the  delineation of Banks Peninsula as an island and of Stewart Island as a peninsula.  Cook did not find a name in use for the whole country but he recorded in his charts and journals the names Eaheinomauwe (Te-Ika-a-Maui - North Island), and T'Avai Poenammoo (Te Wai Poenammoo - South Island).  Although the chart is dated 1772 it was not published until 1773 when the first volumes of Cook's voyages were issued.

 

fig. 2.2  This is the earliest printed map to delineate parts of the coastlines in the Auckland-Hauraki Gulf area.  Cook did not investigate the area west of Ponui and Waiheke and thus failed to find the entrance to Waitemata Harbour.  On 24 November 1769 the Endeavour was off the east coast of Ponui Island.

 

fig. 2.3  'The area shown in this map was known to eighteenth-century Maori as "Uawa." "Watering Place,” is now known as Cook's Cove.

 

fig. 2.4   Cook did not suspect that a harbour existed where Port Nicholson is located until his second voyage but .rough weather prevented him from closely investigating.

 

fig. 2.5    The data in this Russian edition of Cook's map of Dusky Sound are identical to the English edition published in 1777 except the names and legends are in Russian.

 

fig. 2.6  William Wales (1734-98), accompanied James Cook on his second Pacific voyage, 1772-75, as astronomer.  To assist him in compiling his chart, which was modelled on Cook's chart (fig. 2.1), Wales consulted the papers of Charles Green, the astronomer who sailed on Cook's first voyage.  The copper plate used in printing Wales' chart became the foundation plate for printing the British Admiralty general chart (see the entry, Map Bri 1, in Chapter 4).  Both Cook and Wales were aware of errors in Cook's printed chart of 1772 but Wales made no attempt to correct the errors  in his chart of 1788.

 

fig. 2.7 and 2.8  In these two decorative maps longitude is reckoned from a prime meridian passing over the Canary Islands.  If the Canary Islands, or the Peak of Tenerife, had been selected for the international prime meridian  in 1884, instead of Greenwich, the date line today would pass over  the Tasman Sea as in these two maps.  The copper plate used by Cassini in printing his map of New Zealand is preserved in the Istituto Nazionale per la Grafica, via Della Stamperia 6, Rome.

 

 

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 Bibliography

 

Beaglehole, J.C. ed., 1968 The Journals of Captain James Cook on His Voyages  of  Discovery  1  The Voyage of the “Endeavour” 1768-1771. London: Hakluyt Society, 2d ed., extra ser. vol. 34.

----------------- ed.,  1969 The Journals of Captain James Cook  on His  Voyages of  Discovery 2 The Voyage of the “Resolution” and  “Adventure” 1772-1775.  London: Hakluyt Society, extra ser. vol.35.

Beddie, M.K., ed., 1970 Bibliography of Captain James Cook. 2nd ed., Sydney,  NSW: The Public Library of New South Wales.

David, A.C.F., ed., 1988 The Charts and Coastal Views of Captain Cook’s Voyages. The Voyage of the “Endeavour,” 1768-71, London: Hakluyt Society, Extra ser. vol 43.

Hooker, Brian  2001 James Cook's secret search in 1769 The Mariner's  Mirror Vol. 87, No 3 (August 2001), 297-302.

Vladimiro, V. 1988 Italian atlases and their makers 1770-1830  The Map Collector, 45: 10-18.