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About the same time Professor Günter Schilder also came to the conclusion
that the map was updated in 1645 or 1646 with Tasman’s data. He believed
his findings were supported by evidence in Blaeu’s 1646 catalogue a copy
of which is preserved in the Vatican Library.
1645-map came to light in 1960 when it was bought in Madrid and taken to
the Maritiem Museum “Prince Hendrik” in Rotterdam where it has been
restored and remains one of the prize exhibits. It is a huge wall map made
up from an assembly of impressions from copper plates. Overall it measures
about two by three metres. As well as displaying Tasman’s 1642-1643
discoveries the map delineates northern coastlines of Australia discovered
during Tasman’s 1644 voyage. The emerging continent is named Hollandia
At the time Tasman’s journal and charts were dispatched from Batavia, to the headquarters of the Dutch East India Company in the Netherlands, Joan Blaeu held the position of official cartographer to the Company which gave him access to documents arriving in the Netherlands from explorers. Joan Blaeu received the appointment in November 1638 after the death of his father Willem J. Blaeu who had held the office since 1633. This was a confidential position, as the Company maintained a strict secrecy on the data concerning territories which belonged to its sphere of influence. During the senior Blaeu’s term all the Company’s cartographic material was kept at his home but on Joan Blaeu’s appointment, to maintain even stricter secrecy and to prevent theft it was stipulated that all the maps must be kept at the Company’s headquarters. It will be explained later that these precautions proved useless in preventing leaks at the Batavia end of the link after Tasman returned from his 1642-43 voyage.
New Zealand Staten Landt. An entry in his journal of the 1642 - 1643
voyage is quite clear on this point and he gives his reasons in an entry
for 19 December 1642. Tasman explains that the name Staten Landt was
given to honour the States General of the United Provinces of the
Netherlands and he further mentions in the same entry that his discovery
could well be joined to the existing land known as “Staten Landt” at the
south of South America. But on this point he says he is unsure.
This other Staten Land was discovered by Tasman’s compatriots Schouten and Le Maire in 1616 but it was not found to be insular until 1643 when Hendrik Brouwer another Dutchman carried out a circumnavigation of the land now shown on maps as Island de los Estados or Staten Island. Brouwner§§’s discovery was not generally known until his journal was published in 1646.
The various manuscript charts contained in and associated with Tasman’s journal also provide the name Staten Landt sometimes with a variation in spelling. The New Zealand charts are usually attributed to Franchoys Jacobsen Visscher, Tasman’s chief navigator on the voyage.
Tasman had no further association with the naming after his return to Batavia.
No document has been found that explains the reason for the change of name. One very plausible possibility is that the new name was given for symmetry with Hollandia Nova - that is, Australia’s earlier name, and to honour the second most important chamber of the Dutch East India Company – the Amsterdam Chamber being the primary chamber. An excellent discussion on this subject is in Eric McCormick’s 1959 treatise Tasman and New Zealand - A bibliographical Study.
It was found possible to separate 17th and 18th century printed maps into two groups. Maps in group “A” place Tasmania and part of New Zealand in longitudes that correspond to data given in Tasman’s manuscript charts and his journal. Group “B” maps delineate Tasmania and part of New Zealand in longitudes about ten degrees too far west. Further interesting features in category “B” maps are the name “Staten landt” engraved beside the part of the coastline shown and the inclusion of the names “Zeehaens bocht” - in the area of present day Cook Strait, the name “Steylen hoeck” – a point at the northern end of Karamea Bight, and in some maps the name “Duijnich land” the present-day Farewell Spit – these names are missing in the earliest Blaeu maps and globes but they are present in manuscript charts made during the voyage or copies of maps made after the voyage.
author’s paper entitled “Two sets of Tasman longitudes in 17th and 18th
century maps” published in The Geographical Journal in March 1990,
attention is focussed on explanations concerning the two groups of maps
and some of the maps in each group are listed. Included in the maps with
accurately-placed coastlines or group “A” are of course Blaeu maps and
group “B” includes publications by Allard, van Keulen, Mortier, Bellin,
Colom, and Robert de Vaugondy among others.
In the paper it was suggested that the faulty data in the south-west Pacific area could only derive from surreptitiously-obtained copies of manuscripts acquired after Tasman returned to Batavia in June 1643. A draughtsman and a member of the Great Council on Tasman’s voyage, Isaac Gilsemans independently produced a map of Tasmania with unique features and it is certain that a copy of this map was included in the spoils.
entries in Tasman's journal clearly state that he reckoned longitude from
Tenerife in the Canary Islands the manuscript charts display meridians and
figures only. So when the illegally-obtained copies arrived at Amsterdam
late in 1643 or early in 1644 the map-makers who bought them did not know
which prime meridian Tasman based his figures on.
period there was a general but not universal change by map-makers and
navigators to reckon longitude from a line passing over the Peak of
Tenerife in the Canary Islands instead of a line passing over Corvo and
Flores in the Azores or the islands of São Miguel and Santa Maria also in
the Azores. It is interesting to notice that although Tasman used Tenerife
he carried out some calculations using a globe and a map based on Corvo.
Willem Blaeu had published maps and globes using all three prime meridians
at different times and these cartographic tools were in wide circulation
during the 17th century.
With several different prime meridians prominently displayed in different maps a situation developed whereby disasters or blunders were waiting to happen and I shall explain details of the error that occurred when the purloined copies of charts arrived in Amsterdam.
who received purloined copies guessed wrongly that the prime meridian used
by Tasman was the line passing over the islands of São Miguel and Santa
Maria. The difference in longitude between São Miguel and Santa Maria, and
Tenerife or rather the difference reckoned in the 17th century was ten
degrees and this figure equals the error in the longitudinal placement of
the coasts of Tasmania and New Zealand in group “B” of the maps mentioned
another vendor offered more complete sets of Tasman’s charts including a
different version of Tasmania, a chart of “Staten Landt” and a chart of
the islands of Tonga and Fiji.
There is no
direct evidence which links any of several rival publishers to a 1644
publication. However, a suggestion is that Blaeu’s main rival was the
Amsterdam printer Jacob Colom since several elements of evidence combine
to make a strong case in favour of Colom as one of the publishers who
anticipated Blaeu in 1644. (Portrait left.) Born in 1600, Jacob Colom’s enterprising spirit
in publishing a pilot guide in 1632 brought him into conflict with Willem
Blaeu. He remained on unfriendly terms with the Blaeus.
summarise: The facts reviewed in this article leave little doubt that the
first representation of a part of New Zealand in a printed map or maps
occurred in 1644 beside the name Staten Landt. The publisher or
publishers are unknown for certain but Jacob Colom must be considered a
strong contender for the honour of publicising New Zealand for the first
time. This was achieved within about a year of Tasman’s return to Batavia
after his discovery of New Zealand. There is little doubt that Blaeu swung
into action swiftly after being humiliated and produced his revised map
with the new name Zeelandia Nova in 1645, after Tasman’s discoveries in
northern Australia were known in Amsterdam. □